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 Topic: Love and compassion

 (Read 5899 times)
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  • Love and compassion
     Reply #90 - April 25, 2017, 07:15 PM

    Toor, you need to find a communist version of Nakir
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #91 - April 25, 2017, 11:39 PM

    This is amazing  Afro  Cheesy Cheesy
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #92 - April 26, 2017, 01:00 AM

    This is amazing  Afro  Cheesy Cheesy

    what is amazing Helaine ?  you mean  akay posts and tubes of this folder?

    well  they  are indeed amazing  but  that folder heading  "......Love and compassion  in  Islam......"  is wrong ,,,

    What all i  see in Islamic history and and in Quran especially so-called Madinan surahs/verses is  not    ..Love and compassion....."   but  "Loathe and Compulsion "

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #93 - April 26, 2017, 08:48 AM

    Toor, you need to find a communist version of Nakir


    Your wish is my command.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wGNLj8P59dk

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eLVcLun9KWo

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pHqGUOHnKj4

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HB33wG-0J8w
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #94 - April 26, 2017, 08:59 AM

    Chapter III. Socialist and Communist Literature

    1. Reactionary Socialism

    A. Feudal Socialism

    Owing to their historical position, it became the vocation of the aristocracies of France and England to write pamphlets against modern bourgeois society. In the French Revolution of July 1830, and in the English reform agitation[A], these aristocracies again succumbed to the hateful upstart. Thenceforth, a serious political struggle was altogether out of the question. A literary battle alone remained possible. But even in the domain of literature the old cries of the restoration period had become impossible.

    In order to arouse sympathy, the aristocracy was obliged to lose sight, apparently, of its own interests, and to formulate their indictment against the bourgeoisie in the interest of the exploited working class alone. Thus, the aristocracy took their revenge by singing lampoons on their new masters and whispering in his ears sinister prophesies of coming catastrophe.

    In this way arose feudal Socialism: half lamentation, half lampoon; half an echo of the past, half menace of the future; at times, by its bitter, witty and incisive criticism, striking the bourgeoisie to the very heart’s core; but always ludicrous in its effect, through total incapacity to comprehend the march of modern history.

    The aristocracy, in order to rally the people to them, waved the proletarian alms-bag in front for a banner. But the people, so often as it joined them, saw on their hindquarters the old feudal coats of arms, and deserted with loud and irreverent laughter.

    One section of the French Legitimists and “Young England” exhibited this spectacle.

    In pointing out that their mode of exploitation was different to that of the bourgeoisie, the feudalists forget that they exploited under circumstances and conditions that were quite different and that are now antiquated. In showing that, under their rule, the modern proletariat never existed, they forget that the modern bourgeoisie is the necessary offspring of their own form of society.

    For the rest, so little do they conceal the reactionary character of their criticism that their chief accusation against the bourgeois amounts to this, that under the bourgeois régime a class is being developed which is destined to cut up root and branch the old order of society.

    What they upbraid the bourgeoisie with is not so much that it creates a proletariat as that it creates a revolutionary proletariat.

    In political practice, therefore, they join in all coercive measures against the working class; and in ordinary life, despite their high-falutin phrases, they stoop to pick up the golden apples dropped from the tree of industry, and to barter truth, love, and honour, for traffic in wool, beetroot-sugar, and potato spirits.

    As the parson has ever gone hand in hand with the landlord, so has Clerical Socialism with Feudal Socialism.

    Nothing is easier than to give Christian asceticism a Socialist tinge. Has not Christianity declaimed against private property, against marriage, against the State? Has it not preached in the place of these, charity and poverty, celibacy and mortification of the flesh, monastic life and Mother Church? Christian Socialism is but the holy water with which the priest consecrates the heart-burnings of the aristocrat.

    B. Petty-Bourgeois Socialism

    The feudal aristocracy was not the only class that was ruined by the bourgeoisie, not the only class whose conditions of existence pined and perished in the atmosphere of modern bourgeois society. The medieval burgesses and the small peasant proprietors were the precursors of the modern bourgeoisie. In those countries which are but little developed, industrially and commercially, these two classes still vegetate side by side with the rising bourgeoisie.

    In countries where modern civilisation has become fully developed, a new class of petty bourgeois has been formed, fluctuating between proletariat and bourgeoisie, and ever renewing itself as a supplementary part of bourgeois society. The individual members of this class, however, are being constantly hurled down into the proletariat by the action of competition, and, as modern industry develops, they even see the moment approaching when they will completely disappear as an independent section of modern society, to be replaced in manufactures, agriculture and commerce, by overlookers, bailiffs and shopmen.

    In countries like France, where the peasants constitute far more than half of the population, it was natural that writers who sided with the proletariat against the bourgeoisie should use, in their criticism of the bourgeois régime, the standard of the peasant and petty bourgeois, and from the standpoint of these intermediate classes, should take up the cudgels for the working class. Thus arose petty-bourgeois Socialism. Sismondi was the head of this school, not only in France but also in England.

    This school of Socialism dissected with great acuteness the contradictions in the conditions of modern production. It laid bare the hypocritical apologies of economists. It proved, incontrovertibly, the disastrous effects of machinery and division of labour; the concentration of capital and land in a few hands; overproduction and crises; it pointed out the inevitable ruin of the petty bourgeois and peasant, the misery of the proletariat, the anarchy in production, the crying inequalities in the distribution of wealth, the industrial war of extermination between nations, the dissolution of old moral bonds, of the old family relations, of the old nationalities.

    In its positive aims, however, this form of Socialism aspires either to restoring the old means of production and of exchange, and with them the old property relations, and the old society, or to cramping the modern means of production and of exchange within the framework of the old property relations that have been, and were bound to be, exploded by those means. In either case, it is both reactionary and Utopian.

    Its last words are: corporate guilds for manufacture; patriarchal relations in agriculture.

    Ultimately, when stubborn historical facts had dispersed all intoxicating effects of self-deception, this form of Socialism ended in a miserable fit of the blues.

    C. German or “True” Socialism

    The Socialist and Communist literature of France, a literature that originated under the pressure of a bourgeoisie in power, and that was the expressions of the struggle against this power, was introduced into Germany at a time when the bourgeoisie, in that country, had just begun its contest with feudal absolutism.

    German philosophers, would-be philosophers, and beaux esprits (men of letters), eagerly seized on this literature, only forgetting, that when these writings immigrated from France into Germany, French social conditions had not immigrated along with them. In contact with German social conditions, this French literature lost all its immediate practical significance and assumed a purely literary aspect. Thus, to the German philosophers of the Eighteenth Century, the demands of the first French Revolution were nothing more than the demands of “Practical Reason” in general, and the utterance of the will of the revolutionary French bourgeoisie signified, in their eyes, the laws of pure Will, of Will as it was bound to be, of true human Will generally.

    The work of the German literati consisted solely in bringing the new French ideas into harmony with their ancient philosophical conscience, or rather, in annexing the French ideas without deserting their own philosophic point of view.

    This annexation took place in the same way in which a foreign language is appropriated, namely, by translation.

    It is well known how the monks wrote silly lives of Catholic Saints over the manuscripts on which the classical works of ancient heathendom had been written. The German literati reversed this process with the profane French literature. They wrote their philosophical nonsense beneath the French original. For instance, beneath the French criticism of the economic functions of money, they wrote “Alienation of Humanity”, and beneath the French criticism of the bourgeois state they wrote “Dethronement of the Category of the General”, and so forth.

    The introduction of these philosophical phrases at the back of the French historical criticisms, they dubbed “Philosophy of Action”, “True Socialism”, “German Science of Socialism”, “Philosophical Foundation of Socialism”, and so on.

    The French Socialist and Communist literature was thus completely emasculated. And, since it ceased in the hands of the German to express the struggle of one class with the other, he felt conscious of having overcome “French one-sidedness” and of representing, not true requirements, but the requirements of Truth; not the interests of the proletariat, but the interests of Human Nature, of Man in general, who belongs to no class, has no reality, who exists only in the misty realm of philosophical fantasy.

    This German socialism, which took its schoolboy task so seriously and solemnly, and extolled its poor stock-in-trade in such a mountebank fashion, meanwhile gradually lost its pedantic innocence.

    The fight of the Germans, and especially of the Prussian bourgeoisie, against feudal aristocracy and absolute monarchy, in other words, the liberal movement, became more earnest.

    By this, the long-wished for opportunity was offered to “True” Socialism of confronting the political movement with the Socialist demands, of hurling the traditional anathemas against liberalism, against representative government, against bourgeois competition, bourgeois freedom of the press, bourgeois legislation, bourgeois liberty and equality, and of preaching to the masses that they had nothing to gain, and everything to lose, by this bourgeois movement. German Socialism forgot, in the nick of time, that the French criticism, whose silly echo it was, presupposed the existence of modern bourgeois society, with its corresponding economic conditions of existence, and the political constitution adapted thereto, the very things those attainment was the object of the pending struggle in Germany.

    To the absolute governments, with their following of parsons, professors, country squires, and officials, it served as a welcome scarecrow against the threatening bourgeoisie.

    It was a sweet finish, after the bitter pills of flogging and bullets, with which these same governments, just at that time, dosed the German working-class risings.

    While this “True” Socialism thus served the government as a weapon for fighting the German bourgeoisie, it, at the same time, directly represented a reactionary interest, the interest of German Philistines. In Germany, the petty-bourgeois class, a relic of the sixteenth century, and since then constantly cropping up again under the various forms, is the real social basis of the existing state of things.

    To preserve this class is to preserve the existing state of things in Germany. The industrial and political supremacy of the bourgeoisie threatens it with certain destruction — on the one hand, from the concentration of capital; on the other, from the rise of a revolutionary proletariat. “True” Socialism appeared to kill these two birds with one stone. It spread like an epidemic.

    The robe of speculative cobwebs, embroidered with flowers of rhetoric, steeped in the dew of sickly sentiment, this transcendental robe in which the German Socialists wrapped their sorry “eternal truths”, all skin and bone, served to wonderfully increase the sale of their goods amongst such a public.

    And on its part German Socialism recognised, more and more, its own calling as the bombastic representative of the petty-bourgeois Philistine.

    It proclaimed the German nation to be the model nation, and the German petty Philistine to be the typical man. To every villainous meanness of this model man, it gave a hidden, higher, Socialistic interpretation, the exact contrary of its real character. It went to the extreme length of directly opposing the “brutally destructive” tendency of Communism, and of proclaiming its supreme and impartial contempt of all class struggles. With very few exceptions, all the so-called Socialist and Communist publications that now (1847) circulate in Germany belong to the domain of this foul and enervating literature.

     
    2. Conservative or Bourgeois Socialism

    A part of the bourgeoisie is desirous of redressing social grievances in order to secure the continued existence of bourgeois society.

    To this section belong economists, philanthropists, humanitarians, improvers of the condition of the working class, organisers of charity, members of societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals, temperance fanatics, hole-and-corner reformers of every imaginable kind. This form of socialism has, moreover, been worked out into complete systems.

    We may cite Proudhon’s Philosophie de la Misère as an example of this form.

    The Socialistic bourgeois want all the advantages of modern social conditions without the struggles and dangers necessarily resulting therefrom. They desire the existing state of society, minus its revolutionary and disintegrating elements. They wish for a bourgeoisie without a proletariat. The bourgeoisie naturally conceives the world in which it is supreme to be the best; and bourgeois Socialism develops this comfortable conception into various more or less complete systems. In requiring the proletariat to carry out such a system, and thereby to march straightway into the social New Jerusalem, it but requires in reality, that the proletariat should remain within the bounds of existing society, but should cast away all its hateful ideas concerning the bourgeoisie.

    A second, and more practical, but less systematic, form of this Socialism sought to depreciate every revolutionary movement in the eyes of the working class by showing that no mere political reform, but only a change in the material conditions of existence, in economical relations, could be of any advantage to them. By changes in the material conditions of existence, this form of Socialism, however, by no means understands abolition of the bourgeois relations of production, an abolition that can be affected only by a revolution, but administrative reforms, based on the continued existence of these relations; reforms, therefore, that in no respect affect the relations between capital and labour, but, at the best, lessen the cost, and simplify the administrative work, of bourgeois government.

    Bourgeois Socialism attains adequate expression when, and only when, it becomes a mere figure of speech.

    Free trade: for the benefit of the working class. Protective duties: for the benefit of the working class. Prison Reform: for the benefit of the working class. This is the last word and the only seriously meant word of bourgeois socialism.

    It is summed up in the phrase: the bourgeois is a bourgeois — for the benefit of the working class.

     
    3. Critical-Utopian Socialism and Communism

    We do not here refer to that literature which, in every great modern revolution, has always given voice to the demands of the proletariat, such as the writings of Babeuf and others.

    The first direct attempts of the proletariat to attain its own ends, made in times of universal excitement, when feudal society was being overthrown, necessarily failed, owing to the then undeveloped state of the proletariat, as well as to the absence of the economic conditions for its emancipation, conditions that had yet to be produced, and could be produced by the impending bourgeois epoch alone. The revolutionary literature that accompanied these first movements of the proletariat had necessarily a reactionary character. It inculcated universal asceticism and social levelling in its crudest form.

    The Socialist and Communist systems, properly so called, those of Saint-Simon, Fourier, Owen, and others, spring into existence in the early undeveloped period, described above, of the struggle between proletariat and bourgeoisie (see Section 1. Bourgeois and Proletarians).

    The founders of these systems see, indeed, the class antagonisms, as well as the action of the decomposing elements in the prevailing form of society. But the proletariat, as yet in its infancy, offers to them the spectacle of a class without any historical initiative or any independent political movement.

    Since the development of class antagonism keeps even pace with the development of industry, the economic situation, as they find it, does not as yet offer to them the material conditions for the emancipation of the proletariat. They therefore search after a new social science, after new social laws, that are to create these conditions.

    Historical action is to yield to their personal inventive action; historically created conditions of emancipation to fantastic ones; and the gradual, spontaneous class organisation of the proletariat to an organisation of society especially contrived by these inventors. Future history resolves itself, in their eyes, into the propaganda and the practical carrying out of their social plans.

    In the formation of their plans, they are conscious of caring chiefly for the interests of the working class, as being the most suffering class. Only from the point of view of being the most suffering class does the proletariat exist for them.

    The undeveloped state of the class struggle, as well as their own surroundings, causes Socialists of this kind to consider themselves far superior to all class antagonisms. They want to improve the condition of every member of society, even that of the most favoured. Hence, they habitually appeal to society at large, without the distinction of class; nay, by preference, to the ruling class. For how can people, when once they understand their system, fail to see in it the best possible plan of the best possible state of society?

    Hence, they reject all political, and especially all revolutionary action; they wish to attain their ends by peaceful means, necessarily doomed to failure, and by the force of example, to pave the way for the new social Gospel.

    Such fantastic pictures of future society, painted at a time when the proletariat is still in a very undeveloped state and has but a fantastic conception of its own position, correspond with the first instinctive yearnings of that class for a general reconstruction of society.

    But these Socialist and Communist publications contain also a critical element. They attack every principle of existing society. Hence, they are full of the most valuable materials for the enlightenment of the working class. The practical measures proposed in them — such as the abolition of the distinction between town and country, of the family, of the carrying on of industries for the account of private individuals, and of the wage system, the proclamation of social harmony, the conversion of the function of the state into a more superintendence of production — all these proposals point solely to the disappearance of class antagonisms which were, at that time, only just cropping up, and which, in these publications, are recognised in their earliest indistinct and undefined forms only. These proposals, therefore, are of a purely Utopian character.

    The significance of Critical-Utopian Socialism and Communism bears an inverse relation to historical development. In proportion as the modern class struggle develops and takes definite shape, this fantastic standing apart from the contest, these fantastic attacks on it, lose all practical value and all theoretical justification. Therefore, although the originators of these systems were, in many respects, revolutionary, their disciples have, in every case, formed mere reactionary sects. They hold fast by the original views of their masters, in opposition to the progressive historical development of the proletariat. They, therefore, endeavour, and that consistently, to deaden the class struggle and to reconcile the class antagonisms. They still dream of experimental realisation of their social Utopias, of founding isolated “phalansteres”, of establishing “Home Colonies”, or setting up a “Little Icaria” — duodecimo editions of the New Jerusalem — and to realise all these castles in the air, they are compelled to appeal to the feelings and purses of the bourgeois. By degrees, they sink into the category of the reactionary [or] conservative Socialists depicted above, differing from these only by more systematic pedantry, and by their fanatical and superstitious belief in the miraculous effects of their social science.

    They, therefore, violently oppose all political action on the part of the working class; such action, according to them, can only result from blind unbelief in the new Gospel.

    The Owenites in England, and the Fourierists in France, respectively, oppose the Chartists and the Réformistes.
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #95 - April 26, 2017, 10:00 AM



    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XlOhkUkbEww

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #96 - April 26, 2017, 11:29 AM

    Oh....so this thread is just copy/pasting long blocks of text? Well, ok.

    The Code of Hammurabi
    Translated by L. W. King

    When Anu the Sublime, King of the Anunaki, and Bel, the lord of Heaven and earth, who decreed the fate of the land, assigned to Marduk, the over-ruling son of Ea, God of righteousness, dominion over earthly man, and made him great among the Igigi, they called Babylon by his illustrious name, made it great on earth, and founded an everlasting kingdom in it, whose foundations are laid so solidly as those of heaven and earth; then Anu and Bel called by name me, Hammurabi, the exalted prince, who feared God, to bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil-doers; so that the strong should not harm the weak; so that I should rule over the black-headed people like Shamash, and enlighten the land, to further the well-being of mankind.

    Hammurabi, the prince, called of Bel am I, making riches and increase, enriching Nippur and Dur-ilu beyond compare, sublime patron of E-kur; who reestablished Eridu and purified the worship of E-apsu; who conquered the four quarters of the world, made great the name of Babylon, rejoiced the heart of Marduk, his lord who daily pays his devotions in Saggil; the royal scion whom Sin made; who enriched Ur; the humble, the reverent, who brings wealth to Gish-shir-gal; the white king, heard of Shamash, the mighty, who again laid the foundations of Sippara; who clothed the gravestones of Malkat with green; who made E-babbar great, which is like the heavens, the warrior who guarded Larsa and renewed E-babbar, with Shamash as his helper; the lord who granted new life to Uruk, who brought plenteous water to its inhabitants, raised the head of E-anna, and perfected the beauty of Anu and Nana; shield of the land, who reunited the scattered inhabitants of Isin; who richly endowed E-gal-mach; the protecting king of the city, brother of the god Zamama; who firmly founded the farms of Kish, crowned E-me-te-ursag with glory, redoubled the great holy treasures of Nana, managed the temple of Harsag-kalama; the grave of the enemy, whose help brought about the victory; who increased the power of Cuthah; made all glorious in E-shidlam, the black steer, who gored the enemy; beloved of the god Nebo, who rejoiced the inhabitants of Borsippa, the Sublime; who is indefatigable for E-zida; the divine king of the city; the White, Wise; who broadened the fields of Dilbat, who heaped up the harvests for Urash; the Mighty, the lord to whom come scepter and crown, with which he clothes himself; the Elect of Ma-ma; who fixed the temple bounds of Kesh, who made rich the holy feasts of Nin-tu; the provident, solicitous, who provided food and drink for Lagash and Girsu, who provided large sacrificial offerings for the temple of Ningirsu; who captured the enemy, the Elect of the oracle who fulfilled the prediction of Hallab, who rejoiced the heart of Anunit; the pure prince, whose prayer is accepted by Adad; who satisfied the heart of Adad, the warrior, in Karkar, who restored the vessels for worship in E-ud-gal-gal; the king who granted life to the city of Adab; the guide of E-mach; the princely king of the city, the irresistible warrior, who granted life to the inhabitants of Mashkanshabri, and brought abundance to the temple of Shidlam; the White, Potent, who penetrated the secret cave of the bandits, saved the inhabitants of Malka from misfortune, and fixed their home fast in wealth; who established pure sacrificial gifts for Ea and Dam-gal-nun-na, who made his kingdom everlastingly great; the princely king of the city, who subjected the districts on the Ud-kib-nun-na Canal to the sway of Dagon, his Creator; who spared the inhabitants of Mera and Tutul; the sublime prince, who makes the face of Ninni shine; who presents holy meals to the divinity of Nin-a-zu, who cared for its inhabitants in their need, provided a portion for them in Babylon in peace; the shepherd of the oppressed and of the slaves; whose deeds find favor before Anunit, who provided for Anunit in the temple of Dumash in the suburb of Agade; who recognizes the right, who rules by law; who gave back to the city of Ashur its protecting god; who let the name of Ishtar of Nineveh remain in E-mish-mish; the Sublime, who humbles himself before the great gods; successor of Sumula-il; the mighty son of Sin-muballit; the royal scion of Eternity; the mighty monarch, the sun of Babylon, whose rays shed light over the land of Sumer and Akkad; the king, obeyed by the four quarters of the world; Beloved of Ninni, am I.

    When Marduk sent me to rule over men, to give the protection of right to the land, I did right and righteousness in . . . , and brought about the well-being of the oppressed.

    CODE OF LAWS

    1. If any one ensnare another, putting a ban upon him, but he can not prove it, then he that ensnared him shall be put to death.

    2. If any one bring an accusation against a man, and the accused go to the river and leap into the river, if he sink in the river his accuser shall take possession of his house. But if the river prove that the accused is not guilty, and he escape unhurt, then he who had brought the accusation shall be put to death, while he who leaped into the river shall take possession of the house that had belonged to his accuser.

    3. If any one bring an accusation of any crime before the elders, and does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if it be a capital offense charged, be put to death.

    4. If he satisfy the elders to impose a fine of grain or money, he shall receive the fine that the action produces.

    5. If a judge try a case, reach a decision, and present his judgment in writing; if later error shall appear in his decision, and it be through his own fault, then he shall pay twelve times the fine set by him in the case, and he shall be publicly removed from the judge's bench, and never again shall he sit there to render judgement.

    6. If any one steal the property of a temple or of the court, he shall be put to death, and also the one who receives the stolen thing from him shall be put to death.

    7. If any one buy from the son or the slave of another man, without witnesses or a contract, silver or gold, a male or female slave, an ox or a sheep, an ass or anything, or if he take it in charge, he is considered a thief and shall be put to death.

    8. If any one steal cattle or sheep, or an ass, or a pig or a goat, if it belong to a god or to the court, the thief shall pay thirtyfold therefor; if they belonged to a freed man of the king he shall pay tenfold; if the thief has nothing with which to pay he shall be put to death.

    9. If any one lose an article, and find it in the possession of another: if the person in whose possession the thing is found say "A merchant sold it to me, I paid for it before witnesses," and if the owner of the thing say, "I will bring witnesses who know my property," then shall the purchaser bring the merchant who sold it to him, and the witnesses before whom he bought it, and the owner shall bring witnesses who can identify his property. The judge shall examine their testimony--both of the witnesses before whom the price was paid, and of the witnesses who identify the lost article on oath. The merchant is then proved to be a thief and shall be put to death. The owner of the lost article receives his property, and he who bought it receives the money he paid from the estate of the merchant.

    10. If the purchaser does not bring the merchant and the witnesses before whom he bought the article, but its owner bring witnesses who identify it, then the buyer is the thief and shall be put to death, and the owner receives the lost article.

    11. If the owner do not bring witnesses to identify the lost article, he is an evil-doer, he has traduced, and shall be put to death.

    12. If the witnesses be not at hand, then shall the judge set a limit, at the expiration of six months. If his witnesses have not appeared within the six months, he is an evil-doer, and shall bear the fine of the pending case.

    14. If any one steal the minor son of another, he shall be put to death.

    15. If any one take a male or female slave of the court, or a male or female slave of a freed man, outside the city gates, he shall be put to death.

    16. If any one receive into his house a runaway male or female slave of the court, or of a freedman, and does not bring it out at the public proclamation of the major domus, the master of the house shall be put to death.

    17. If any one find runaway male or female slaves in the open country and bring them to their masters, the master of the slaves shall pay him two shekels of silver.

    18. If the slave will not give the name of the master, the finder shall bring him to the palace; a further investigation must follow, and the slave shall be returned to his master.

    19. If he hold the slaves in his house, and they are caught there, he shall be put to death.

    20. If the slave that he caught run away from him, then shall he swear to the owners of the slave, and he is free of all blame.

    21. If any one break a hole into a house (break in to steal), he shall be put to death before that hole and be buried.

    22. If any one is committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall be put to death.

    23. If the robber is not caught, then shall he who was robbed claim under oath the amount of his loss; then shall the community, and . . . on whose ground and territory and in whose domain it was compensate him for the goods stolen.

    24. If persons are stolen, then shall the community and . . . pay one mina of silver to their relatives.

    25. If fire break out in a house, and some one who comes to put it out cast his eye upon the property of the owner of the house, and take the property of the master of the house, he shall be thrown into that self-same fire.

    26. If a chieftain or a man (common soldier), who has been ordered to go upon the king's highway for war does not go, but hires a mercenary, if he withholds the compensation, then shall this officer or man be put to death, and he who represented him shall take possession of his house.

    27. If a chieftain or man be caught in the misfortune of the king (captured in battle), and if his fields and garden be given to another and he take possession, if he return and reaches his place, his field and garden shall be returned to him, he shall take it over again.

    28. If a chieftain or a man be caught in the misfortune of a king, if his son is able to enter into possession, then the field and garden shall be given to him, he shall take over the fee of his father.

    29. If his son is still young, and can not take possession, a third of the field and garden shall be given to his mother, and she shall bring him up.

    30. If a chieftain or a man leave his house, garden, and field and hires it out, and some one else takes possession of his house, garden, and field and uses it for three years: if the first owner return and claims his house, garden, and field, it shall not be given to him, but he who has taken possession of it and used it shall continue to use it.

    31. If he hire it out for one year and then return, the house, garden, and field shall be given back to him, and he shall take it over again.

    32. If a chieftain or a man is captured on the "Way of the King" (in war), and a merchant buy him free, and bring him back to his place; if he have the means in his house to buy his freedom, he shall buy himself free: if he have nothing in his house with which to buy himself free, he shall be bought free by the temple of his community; if there be nothing in the temple with which to buy him free, the court shall buy his freedom. His field, garden, and house shall not be given for the purchase of his freedom.

    33. If a . . . or a . . . enter himself as withdrawn from the "Way of the King," and send a mercenary as substitute, but withdraw him, then the . . . or . . . shall be put to death.

    34. If a . . . or a . . . harm the property of a captain, injure the captain, or take away from the captain a gift presented to him by the king, then the . . . or . . . shall be put to death.

    35. If any one buy the cattle or sheep which the king has given to chieftains from him, he loses his money.

    36. The field, garden, and house of a chieftain, of a man, or of one subject to quit-rent, can not be sold.

    37. If any one buy the field, garden, and house of a chieftain, man, or one subject to quit-rent, his contract tablet of sale shall be broken (declared invalid) and he loses his money. The field, garden, and house return to their owners.

    38. A chieftain, man, or one subject to quit-rent can not assign his tenure of field, house, and garden to his wife or daughter, nor can he assign it for a debt.

    39. He may, however, assign a field, garden, or house which he has bought, and holds as property, to his wife or daughter or give it for debt.

    40. He may sell field, garden, and house to a merchant (royal agents) or to any other public official, the buyer holding field, house, and garden for its usufruct.

    41. If any one fence in the field, garden, and house of a chieftain, man, or one subject to quit-rent, furnishing the palings therefor; if the chieftain, man, or one subject to quit-rent return to field, garden, and house, the palings which were given to him become his property.

    42. If any one take over a field to till it, and obtain no harvest therefrom, it must be proved that he did no work on the field, and he must deliver grain, just as his neighbor raised, to the owner of the field.

    43. If he do not till the field, but let it lie fallow, he shall give grain like his neighbor's to the owner of the field, and the field which he let lie fallow he must plow and sow and return to its owner.

    44. If any one take over a waste-lying field to make it arable, but is lazy, and does not make it arable, he shall plow the fallow field in the fourth year, harrow it and till it, and give it back to its owner, and for each ten gan (a measure of area) ten gur of grain shall be paid.

    45. If a man rent his field for tillage for a fixed rental, and receive the rent of his field, but bad weather come and destroy the harvest, the injury falls upon the tiller of the soil.

    46. If he do not receive a fixed rental for his field, but lets it on half or third shares of the harvest, the grain on the field shall be divided proportionately between the tiller and the owner.

    47. If the tiller, because he did not succeed in the first year, has had the soil tilled by others, the owner may raise no objection; the field has been cultivated and he receives the harvest according to agreement.

    48. If any one owe a debt for a loan, and a storm prostrates the grain, or the harvest fail, or the grain does not grow for lack of water; in that year he need not give his creditor any grain, he washes his debt-tablet in water and pays no rent for this year.

    49. If any one take money from a merchant, and give the merchant a field tillable for corn or sesame and order him to plant corn or sesame in the field, and to harvest the crop; if the cultivator plant corn or sesame in the field, at the harvest the corn or sesame that is in the field shall belong to the owner of the field and he shall pay corn as rent, for the money he received from the merchant, and the livelihood of the cultivator shall he give to the merchant.

    50. If he give a cultivated corn-field or a cultivated sesame-field, the corn or sesame in the field shall belong to the owner of the field, and he shall return the money to the merchant as rent.

    51. If he have no money to repay, then he shall pay in corn or sesame in place of the money as rent for what he received from the merchant, according to the royal tariff.

    52. If the cultivator do not plant corn or sesame in the field, the debtor's contract is not weakened.

    53. If any one be too lazy to keep his dam in proper condition, and does not so keep it; if then the dam break and all the fields be flooded, then shall he in whose dam the break occurred be sold for money, and the money shall replace the corn which he has caused to be ruined.

    54. If he be not able to replace the corn, then he and his possessions shall be divided among the farmers whose corn he has flooded.

    55. If any one open his ditches to water his crop, but is careless, and the water flood the field of his neighbor, then he shall pay his neighbor corn for his loss.

    56. If a man let in the water, and the water overflow the plantation of his neighbor, he shall pay ten gur of corn for every ten gan of land.

    57. If a shepherd, without the permission of the owner of the field, and without the knowledge of the owner of the sheep, lets the sheep into a field to graze, then the owner of the field shall harvest his crop, and the shepherd, who had pastured his flock there without permission of the owner of the field, shall pay to the owner twenty gur of corn for every ten gan.

    58. If after the flocks have left the pasture and been shut up in the common fold at the city gate, any shepherd let them into a field and they graze there, this shepherd shall take possession of the field which he has allowed to be grazed on, and at the harvest he must pay sixty gur of corn for every ten gan.

    59. If any man, without the knowledge of the owner of a garden, fell a tree in a garden he shall pay half a mina in money.

    60. If any one give over a field to a gardener, for him to plant it as a garden, if he work at it, and care for it for four years, in the fifth year the owner and the gardener shall divide it, the owner taking his part in charge.

    61. If the gardener has not completed the planting of the field, leaving one part unused, this shall be assigned to him as his.

    62. If he do not plant the field that was given over to him as a garden, if it be arable land (for corn or sesame) the gardener shall pay the owner the produce of the field for the years that he let it lie fallow, according to the product of neighboring fields, put the field in arable condition and return it to its owner.

    63. If he transform waste land into arable fields and return it to its owner, the latter shall pay him for one year ten gur for ten gan.

    64. If any one hand over his garden to a gardener to work, the gardener shall pay to its owner two-thirds of the produce of the garden, for so long as he has it in possession, and the other third shall he keep.

    65. If the gardener do not work in the garden and the product fall off, the gardener shall pay in proportion to other neighboring gardens. [Here a portion of the text is missing, apparently comprising thirty-four paragraphs.]

    100. . . . interest for the money, as much as he has received, he shall give a note therefor, and on the day, when they settle, pay to the merchant.

    101. If there are no mercantile arrangements in the place whither he went, he shall leave the entire amount of money which he received with the broker to give to the merchant.

    102. If a merchant entrust money to an agent (broker) for some investment, and the broker suffer a loss in the place to which he goes, he shall make good the capital to the merchant.

    103. If, while on the journey, an enemy take away from him anything that he had, the broker shall swear by God and be free of obligation.

    104. If a merchant give an agent corn, wool, oil, or any other goods to transport, the agent shall give a receipt for the amount, and compensate the merchant therefor. Then he shall obtain a receipt form the merchant for the money that he gives the merchant.

    105. If the agent is careless, and does not take a receipt for the money which he gave the merchant, he can not consider the unreceipted money as his own.

    106. If the agent accept money from the merchant, but have a quarrel with the merchant (denying the receipt), then shall the merchant swear before God and witnesses that he has given this money to the agent, and the agent shall pay him three times the sum.

    107. If the merchant cheat the agent, in that as the latter has returned to him all that had been given him, but the merchant denies the receipt of what had been returned to him, then shall this agent convict the merchant before God and the judges, and if he still deny receiving what the agent had given him shall pay six times the sum to the agent.

    108. If a tavern-keeper (feminine) does not accept corn according to gross weight in payment of drink, but takes money, and the price of the drink is less than that of the corn, she shall be convicted and thrown into the water.

    109. If conspirators meet in the house of a tavern-keeper, and these conspirators are not captured and delivered to the court, the tavern-keeper shall be put to death.

    110. If a "sister of a god" open a tavern, or enter a tavern to drink, then shall this woman be burned to death.

    111. If an inn-keeper furnish sixty ka of usakani-drink to . . . she shall receive fifty ka of corn at the harvest.

    112. If any one be on a journey and entrust silver, gold, precious stones, or any movable property to another, and wish to recover it from him; if the latter do not bring all of the property to the appointed place, but appropriate it to his own use, then shall this man, who did not bring the property to hand it over, be convicted, and he shall pay fivefold for all that had been entrusted to him.

    113. If any one have consignment of corn or money, and he take from the granary or box without the knowledge of the owner, then shall he who took corn without the knowledge of the owner out of the granary or money out of the box be legally convicted, and repay the corn he has taken. And he shall lose whatever commission was paid to him, or due him.

    114. If a man have no claim on another for corn and money, and try to demand it by force, he shall pay one-third of a mina of silver in every case.

    115. If any one have a claim for corn or money upon another and imprison him; if the prisoner die in prison a natural death, the case shall go no further.

    116. If the prisoner die in prison from blows or maltreatment, the master of the prisoner shall convict the merchant before the judge. If he was a free-born man, the son of the merchant shall be put to death; if it was a slave, he shall pay one-third of a mina of gold, and all that the master of the prisoner gave he shall forfeit.

    117. If any one fail to meet a claim for debt, and sell himself, his wife, his son, and daughter for money or give them away to forced labor: they shall work for three years in the house of the man who bought them, or the proprietor, and in the fourth year they shall be set free.

    118. If he give a male or female slave away for forced labor, and the merchant sublease them, or sell them for money, no objection can be raised.

    119. If any one fail to meet a claim for debt, and he sell the maid servant who has borne him children, for money, the money which the merchant has paid shall be repaid to him by the owner of the slave and she shall be freed.

    120. If any one store corn for safe keeping in another person's house, and any harm happen to the corn in storage, or if the owner of the house open the granary and take some of the corn, or if especially he deny that the corn was stored in his house: then the owner of the corn shall claim his corn before God (on oath), and the owner of the house shall pay its owner for all of the corn that he took.

    121. If any one store corn in another man's house he shall pay him storage at the rate of one gur for every five ka of corn per year.

    122. If any one give another silver, gold, or anything else to keep, he shall show everything to some witness, draw up a contract, and then hand it over for safe keeping.

    123. If he turn it over for safe keeping without witness or contract, and if he to whom it was given deny it, then he has no legitimate claim.

    124. If any one deliver silver, gold, or anything else to another for safe keeping, before a witness, but he deny it, he shall be brought before a judge, and all that he has denied he shall pay in full.

    125. If any one place his property with another for safe keeping, and there, either through thieves or robbers, his property and the property of the other man be lost, the owner of the house, through whose neglect the loss took place, shall compensate the owner for all that was given to him in charge. But the owner of the house shall try to follow up and recover his property, and take it away from the thief.

    126. If any one who has not lost his goods state that they have been lost, and make false claims: if he claim his goods and amount of injury before God, even though he has not lost them, he shall be fully compensated for all his loss claimed. (I.e., the oath is all that is needed.)

    127. If any one "point the finger" (slander) at a sister of a god or the wife of any one, and can not prove it, this man shall be taken before the judges and his brow shall be marked. (by cutting the skin, or perhaps hair.)

    128. If a man take a woman to wife, but have no intercourse with her, this woman is no wife to him.

    129. If a man's wife be surprised (in flagrante delicto) with another man, both shall be tied and thrown into the water, but the husband may pardon his wife and the king his slaves.

    130. If a man violate the wife (betrothed or child-wife) of another man, who has never known a man, and still lives in her father's house, and sleep with her and be surprised, this man shall be put to death, but the wife is blameless.

    131. If a man bring a charge against one's wife, but she is not surprised with another man, she must take an oath and then may return to her house.

    132. If the "finger is pointed" at a man's wife about another man, but she is not caught sleeping with the other man, she shall jump into the river for her husband.

    133. If a man is taken prisoner in war, and there is a sustenance in his house, but his wife leave house and court, and go to another house: because this wife did not keep her court, and went to another house, she shall be judicially condemned and thrown into the water.

    134. If any one be captured in war and there is not sustenance in his house, if then his wife go to another house this woman shall be held blameless.

    135. If a man be taken prisoner in war and there be no sustenance in his house and his wife go to another house and bear children; and if later her husband return and come to his home: then this wife shall return to her husband, but the children follow their father.

    136. If any one leave his house, run away, and then his wife go to another house, if then he return, and wishes to take his wife back: because he fled from his home and ran away, the wife of this runaway shall not return to her husband.

    137. If a man wish to separate from a woman who has borne him children, or from his wife who has borne him children: then he shall give that wife her dowry, and a part of the usufruct of field, garden, and property, so that she can rear her children. When she has brought up her children, a portion of all that is given to the children, equal as that of one son, shall be given to her. She may then marry the man of her heart.

    138. If a man wishes to separate from his wife who has borne him no children, he shall give her the amount of her purchase money and the dowry which she brought from her father's house, and let her go.

    139. If there was no purchase price he shall give her one mina of gold as a gift of release.

    140. If he be a freed man he shall give her one-third of a mina of gold.

    141. If a man's wife, who lives in his house, wishes to leave it, plunges into debt, tries to ruin her house, neglects her husband, and is judicially convicted: if her husband offer her release, she may go on her way, and he gives her nothing as a gift of release. If her husband does not wish to release her, and if he take another wife, she shall remain as servant in her husband's house.

    142. If a woman quarrel with her husband, and say: "You are not congenial to me," the reasons for her prejudice must be presented. If she is guiltless, and there is no fault on her part, but he leaves and neglects her, then no guilt attaches to this woman, she shall take her dowry and go back to her father's house.

    143. If she is not innocent, but leaves her husband, and ruins her house, neglecting her husband, this woman shall be cast into the water.

    144. If a man take a wife and this woman give her husband a maid-servant, and she bear him children, but this man wishes to take another wife, this shall not be permitted to him; he shall not take a second wife.

    145. If a man take a wife, and she bear him no children, and he intend to take another wife: if he take this second wife, and bring her into the house, this second wife shall not be allowed equality with his wife.

    146. If a man take a wife and she give this man a maid-servant as wife and she bear him children, and then this maid assume equality with the wife: because she has borne him children her master shall not sell her for money, but he may keep her as a slave, reckoning her among the maid-servants.

    147. If she have not borne him children, then her mistress may sell her for money.

    148. If a man take a wife, and she be seized by disease, if he then desire to take a second wife he shall not put away his wife, who has been attacked by disease, but he shall keep her in the house which he has built and support her so long as she lives.

    149. If this woman does not wish to remain in her husband's house, then he shall compensate her for the dowry that she brought with her from her father's house, and she may go.

    150. If a man give his wife a field, garden, and house and a deed therefor, if then after the death of her husband the sons raise no claim, then the mother may bequeath all to one of her sons whom she prefers, and need leave nothing to his brothers.

    151. If a woman who lived in a man's house made an agreement with her husband, that no creditor can arrest her, and has given a document therefor: if that man, before he married that woman, had a debt, the creditor can not hold the woman for it. But if the woman, before she entered the man's house, had contracted a debt, her creditor can not arrest her husband therefor.

    152. If after the woman had entered the man's house, both contracted a debt, both must pay the merchant.

    153. If the wife of one man on account of another man has their mates (her husband and the other man's wife) murdered, both of them shall be impaled.

    154. If a man be guilty of incest with his daughter, he shall be driven from the place (exiled).

    155. If a man betroth a girl to his son, and his son have intercourse with her, but he (the father) afterward defile her, and be surprised, then he shall be bound and cast into the water (drowned).

    156. If a man betroth a girl to his son, but his son has not known her, and if then he defile her, he shall pay her half a gold mina, and compensate her for all that she brought out of her father's house. She may marry the man of her heart.

    157. If any one be guilty of incest with his mother after his father, both shall be burned.

    158. If any one be surprised after his father with his chief wife, who has borne children, he shall be driven out of his father's house.

    159. If any one, who has brought chattels into his father-in-law's house, and has paid the purchase-money, looks for another wife, and says to his father-in-law: "I do not want your daughter," the girl's father may keep all that he had brought.

    160. If a man bring chattels into the house of his father-in-law, and pay the "purchase price" (for his wife): if then the father of the girl say: "I will not give you my daughter," he shall give him back all that he brought with him.

    161. If a man bring chattels into his father-in-law's house and pay the "purchase price," if then his friend slander him, and his father-in-law say to the young husband: "You shall not marry my daughter," the he shall give back to him undiminished all that he had brought with him; but his wife shall not be married to the friend.

    162. If a man marry a woman, and she bear sons to him; if then this woman die, then shall her father have no claim on her dowry; this belongs to her sons.

    163. If a man marry a woman and she bear him no sons; if then this woman die, if the "purchase price" which he had paid into the house of his father-in-law is repaid to him, her husband shall have no claim upon the dowry of this woman; it belongs to her father's house.

    164. If his father-in-law do not pay back to him the amount of the "purchase price" he may subtract the amount of the "Purchase price" from the dowry, and then pay the remainder to her father's house.

    165. If a man give to one of his sons whom he prefers a field, garden, and house, and a deed therefor: if later the father die, and the brothers divide the estate, then they shall first give him the present of his father, and he shall accept it; and the rest of the paternal property shall they divide.

    166. If a man take wives for his son, but take no wife for his minor son, and if then he die: if the sons divide the estate, they shall set aside besides his portion the money for the "purchase price" for the minor brother who had taken no wife as yet, and secure a wife for him.

    167. If a man marry a wife and she bear him children: if this wife die and he then take another wife and she bear him children: if then the father die, the sons must not partition the estate according to the mothers, they shall divide the dowries of their mothers only in this way; the paternal estate they shall divide equally with one another.

    168. If a man wish to put his son out of his house, and declare before the judge: "I want to put my son out," then the judge shall examine into his reasons. If the son be guilty of no great fault, for which he can be rightfully put out, the father shall not put him out.

    169. If he be guilty of a grave fault, which should rightfully deprive him of the filial relationship, the father shall forgive him the first time; but if he be guilty of a grave fault a second time the father may deprive his son of all filial relation.

    170. If his wife bear sons to a man, or his maid-servant have borne sons, and the father while still living says to the children whom his maid-servant has borne: "My sons," and he count them with the sons of his wife; if then the father die, then the sons of the wife and of the maid-servant shall divide the paternal property in common. The son of the wife is to partition and choose.

    171. If, however, the father while still living did not say to the sons of the maid-servant: "My sons," and then the father dies, then the sons of the maid-servant shall not share with the sons of the wife, but the freedom of the maid and her sons shall be granted. The sons of the wife shall have no right to enslave the sons of the maid; the wife shall take her dowry (from her father), and the gift that her husband gave her and deeded to her (separate from dowry, or the purchase-money paid her father), and live in the home of her husband: so long as she lives she shall use it, it shall not be sold for money. Whatever she leaves shall belong to her children.

    172. If her husband made her no gift, she shall be compensated for her gift, and she shall receive a portion from the estate of her husband, equal to that of one child. If her sons oppress her, to force her out of the house, the judge shall examine into the matter, and if the sons are at fault the woman shall not leave her husband's house. If the woman desire to leave the house, she must leave to her sons the gift which her husband gave her, but she may take the dowry of her father's house. Then she may marry the man of her heart.

    173. If this woman bear sons to her second husband, in the place to which she went, and then die, her earlier and later sons shall divide the dowry between them.

    174. If she bear no sons to her second husband, the sons of her first husband shall have the dowry.

    175. If a State slave or the slave of a freed man marry the daughter of a free man, and children are born, the master of the slave shall have no right to enslave the children of the free.

    176. If, however, a State slave or the slave of a freed man marry a man's daughter, and after he marries her she bring a dowry from a father's house, if then they both enjoy it and found a household, and accumulate means, if then the slave die, then she who was free born may take her dowry, and all that her husband and she had earned; she shall divide them into two parts, one-half the master for the slave shall take, and the other half shall the free-born woman take for her children. If the free-born woman had no gift she shall take all that her husband and she had earned and divide it into two parts; and the master of the slave shall take one-half and she shall take the other for her children.

    177. If a widow, whose children are not grown, wishes to enter another house (remarry), she shall not enter it without the knowledge of the judge. If she enter another house the judge shall examine the state of the house of her first husband. Then the house of her first husband shall be entrusted to the second husband and the woman herself as managers. And a record must be made thereof. She shall keep the house in order, bring up the children, and not sell the house-hold utensils. He who buys the utensils of the children of a widow shall lose his money, and the goods shall return to their owners.

    178. If a "devoted woman" or a prostitute to whom her father has given a dowry and a deed therefor, but if in this deed it is not stated that she may bequeath it as she pleases, and has not explicitly stated that she has the right of disposal; if then her father die, then her brothers shall hold her field and garden, and give her corn, oil, and milk according to her portion, and satisfy her. If her brothers do not give her corn, oil, and milk according to her share, then her field and garden shall support her. She shall have the usufruct of field and garden and all that her father gave her so long as she lives, but she can not sell or assign it to others. Her position of inheritance belongs to her brothers.

    179. If a "sister of a god," or a prostitute, receive a gift from her father, and a deed in which it has been explicitly stated that she may dispose of it as she pleases, and give her complete disposition thereof: if then her father die, then she may leave her property to whomsoever she pleases. Her brothers can raise no claim thereto.

    180. If a father give a present to his daughter--either marriageable or a prostitute unmarriageable)--and then die, then she is to receive a portion as a child from the paternal estate, and enjoy its usufruct so long as she lives. Her estate belongs to her brothers.

    181. If a father devote a temple-maid or temple-virgin to God and give her no present: if then the father die, she shall receive the third of a child's portion from the inheritance of her father's house, and enjoy its usufruct so long as she lives. Her estate belongs to her brothers.

    182. If a father devote his daughter as a wife of Mardi of Babylon (as in 181), and give her no present, nor a deed; if then her father die, then shall she receive one-third of her portion as a child of her father's house from her brothers, but Marduk may leave her estate to whomsoever she wishes.

    183. If a man give his daughter by a concubine a dowry, and a husband, and a deed; if then her father die, she shall receive no portion from the paternal estate.

    184. If a man do not give a dowry to his daughter by a concubine, and no husband; if then her father die, her brother shall give her a dowry according to her father's wealth and secure a husband for her.

    185. If a man adopt a child and to his name as son, and rear him, this grown son can not be demanded back again.

    186. If a man adopt a son, and if after he has taken him he injure his foster father and mother, then this adopted son shall return to his father's house.

    187. The son of a paramour in the palace service, or of a prostitute, can not be demanded back.

    188. If an artizan has undertaken to rear a child and teaches him his craft, he can not be demanded back.

    189. If he has not taught him his craft, this adopted son may return to his father's house.

    190. If a man does not maintain a child that he has adopted as a son and reared with his other children, then his adopted son may return to his father's house.

    191. If a man, who had adopted a son and reared him, founded a household, and had children, wish to put this adopted son out, then this son shall not simply go his way. His adoptive father shall give him of his wealth one-third of a child's portion, and then he may go. He shall not give him of the field, garden, and house.

    192. If a son of a paramour or a prostitute say to his adoptive father or mother: "You are not my father, or my mother," his tongue shall be cut off.

    193. If the son of a paramour or a prostitute desire his father's house, and desert his adoptive father and adoptive mother, and goes to his father's house, then shall his eye be put out.

    194. If a man give his child to a nurse and the child die in her hands, but the nurse unbeknown to the father and mother nurse another child, then they shall convict her of having nursed another child without the knowledge of the father and mother and her breasts shall be cut off.

    195. If a son strike his father, his hands shall be hewn off.

    196. If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out. [ An eye for an eye ]

    197. If he break another man's bone, his bone shall be broken.

    198. If he put out the eye of a freed man, or break the bone of a freed man, he shall pay one gold mina.

    199. If he put out the eye of a man's slave, or break the bone of a man's slave, he shall pay one-half of its value.

    200. If a man knock out the teeth of his equal, his teeth shall be knocked out. [ A tooth for a tooth ]

    201. If he knock out the teeth of a freed man, he shall pay one-third of a gold mina.

    202. If any one strike the body of a man higher in rank than he, he shall receive sixty blows with an ox-whip in public.

    203. If a free-born man strike the body of another free-born man or equal rank, he shall pay one gold mina.

    204. If a freed man strike the body of another freed man, he shall pay ten shekels in money.

    205. If the slave of a freed man strike the body of a freed man, his ear shall be cut off.

    206. If during a quarrel one man strike another and wound him, then he shall swear, "I did not injure him wittingly," and pay the physicians.

    207. If the man die of his wound, he shall swear similarly, and if he (the deceased) was a free-born man, he shall pay half a mina in money.

    208. If he was a freed man, he shall pay one-third of a mina.

    209. If a man strike a free-born woman so that she lose her unborn child, he shall pay ten shekels for her loss.

    210. If the woman die, his daughter shall be put to death.

    211. If a woman of the free class lose her child by a blow, he shall pay five shekels in money.

    212. If this woman die, he shall pay half a mina.

    213. If he strike the maid-servant of a man, and she lose her child, he shall pay two shekels in money.

    214. If this maid-servant die, he shall pay one-third of a mina.

    215. If a physician make a large incision with an operating knife and cure it, or if he open a tumor (over the eye) with an operating knife, and saves the eye, he shall receive ten shekels in money.

    216. If the patient be a freed man, he receives five shekels.

    217. If he be the slave of some one, his owner shall give the physician two shekels.

    218. If a physician make a large incision with the operating knife, and kill him, or open a tumor with the operating knife, and cut out the eye, his hands shall be cut off.

    219. If a physician make a large incision in the slave of a freed man, and kill him, he shall replace the slave with another slave.

    220. If he had opened a tumor with the operating knife, and put out his eye, he shall pay half his value.

    221. If a physician heal the broken bone or diseased soft part of a man, the patient shall pay the physician five shekels in money.

    222. If he were a freed man he shall pay three shekels.

    223. If he were a slave his owner shall pay the physician two shekels.

    224. If a veterinary surgeon perform a serious operation on an ass or an ox, and cure it, the owner shall pay the surgeon one-sixth of a shekel as a fee.

    225. If he perform a serious operation on an ass or ox, and kill it, he shall pay the owner one-fourth of its value.

    226. If a barber, without the knowledge of his master, cut the sign of a slave on a slave not to be sold, the hands of this barber shall be cut off.

    227. If any one deceive a barber, and have him mark a slave not for sale with the sign of a slave, he shall be put to death, and buried in his house. The barber shall swear: "I did not mark him wittingly," and shall be guiltless.

    228. If a builder build a house for some one and complete it, he shall give him a fee of two shekels in money for each sar of surface.

    229 If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house which he built fall in and kill its owner, then that builder shall be put to death.

    230. If it kill the son of the owner the son of that builder shall be put to death.

    231. If it kill a slave of the owner, then he shall pay slave for slave to the owner of the house.

    232. If it ruin goods, he shall make compensation for all that has been ruined, and inasmuch as he did not construct properly this house which he built and it fell, he shall re-erect the house from his own means.

    233. If a builder build a house for some one, even though he has not yet completed it; if then the walls seem toppling, the builder must make the walls solid from his own means.

    234. If a shipbuilder build a boat of sixty gur for a man, he shall pay him a fee of two shekels in money.

    235. If a shipbuilder build a boat for some one, and do not make it tight, if during that same year that boat is sent away and suffers injury, the shipbuilder shall take the boat apart and put it together tight at his own expense. The tight boat he shall give to the boat owner.

    236. If a man rent his boat to a sailor, and the sailor is careless, and the boat is wrecked or goes aground, the sailor shall give the owner of the boat another boat as compensation.

    237. If a man hire a sailor and his boat, and provide it with corn, clothing, oil and dates, and other things of the kind needed for fitting it: if the sailor is careless, the boat is wrecked, and its contents ruined, then the sailor shall compensate for the boat which was wrecked and all in it that he ruined.

    238. If a sailor wreck any one's ship, but saves it, he shall pay the half of its value in money.

    239. If a man hire a sailor, he shall pay him six gur of corn per year.

    240. If a merchantman run against a ferryboat, and wreck it, the master of the ship that was wrecked shall seek justice before God; the master of the merchantman, which wrecked the ferryboat, must compensate the owner for the boat and all that he ruined.

    241. If any one impresses an ox for forced labor, he shall pay one-third of a mina in money.

    242. If any one hire oxen for a year, he shall pay four gur of corn for plow-oxen.

    243. As rent of herd cattle he shall pay three gur of corn to the owner.

    244. If any one hire an ox or an ass, and a lion kill it in the field, the loss is upon its owner.

    245. If any one hire oxen, and kill them by bad treatment or blows, he shall compensate the owner, oxen for oxen.

    246. If a man hire an ox, and he break its leg or cut the ligament of its neck, he shall compensate the owner with ox for ox.

    247. If any one hire an ox, and put out its eye, he shall pay the owner one-half of its value.

    248. If any one hire an ox, and break off a horn, or cut off its tail, or hurt its muzzle, he shall pay one-fourth of its value in money.

    249. If any one hire an ox, and God strike it that it die, the man who hired it shall swear by God and be considered guiltless.

    250. If while an ox is passing on the street (market) some one push it, and kill it, the owner can set up no claim in the suit (against the hirer).

    251. If an ox be a goring ox, and it shown that he is a gorer, and he do not bind his horns, or fasten the ox up, and the ox gore a free-born man and kill him, the owner shall pay one-half a mina in money.

    252. If he kill a man's slave, he shall pay one-third of a mina.

    253. If any one agree with another to tend his field, give him seed, entrust a yoke of oxen to him, and bind him to cultivate the field, if he steal the corn or plants, and take them for himself, his hands shall be hewn off.

    254. If he take the seed-corn for himself, and do not use the yoke of oxen, he shall compensate him for the amount of the seed-corn.

    255. If he sublet the man's yoke of oxen or steal the seed-corn, planting nothing in the field, he shall be convicted, and for each one hundred gan he shall pay sixty gur of corn.

    256. If his community will not pay for him, then he shall be placed in that field with the cattle (at work).

    257. If any one hire a field laborer, he shall pay him eight gur of corn per year.

    258. If any one hire an ox-driver, he shall pay him six gur of corn per year.

    259. If any one steal a water-wheel from the field, he shall pay five shekels in money to its owner.

    260. If any one steal a shadduf (used to draw water from the river or canal) or a plow, he shall pay three shekels in money.

    261. If any one hire a herdsman for cattle or sheep, he shall pay him eight gur of corn per annum.

    262. If any one, a cow or a sheep . . .

    263. If he kill the cattle or sheep that were given to him, he shall compensate the owner with cattle for cattle and sheep for sheep.

    264. If a herdsman, to whom cattle or sheep have been entrusted for watching over, and who has received his wages as agreed upon, and is satisfied, diminish the number of the cattle or sheep, or make the increase by birth less, he shall make good the increase or profit which was lost in the terms of settlement.

    265. If a herdsman, to whose care cattle or sheep have been entrusted, be guilty of fraud and make false returns of the natural increase, or sell them for money, then shall he be convicted and pay the owner ten times the loss.

    266. If the animal be killed in the stable by God ( an accident), or if a lion kill it, the herdsman shall declare his innocence before God, and the owner bears the accident in the stable.

    267. If the herdsman overlook something, and an accident happen in the stable, then the herdsman is at fault for the accident which he has caused in the stable, and he must compensate the owner for the cattle or sheep.

    268. If any one hire an ox for threshing, the amount of the hire is twenty ka of corn.

    269. If he hire an ass for threshing, the hire is twenty ka of corn.

    270. If he hire a young animal for threshing, the hire is ten ka of corn.

    271. If any one hire oxen, cart and driver, he shall pay one hundred and eighty ka of corn per day.

    272. If any one hire a cart alone, he shall pay forty ka of corn per day.

    273. If any one hire a day laborer, he shall pay him from the New Year until the fifth month (April to August, when days are long and the work hard) six gerahs in money per day; from the sixth month to the end of the year he shall give him five gerahs per day.

    274. If any one hire a skilled artizan, he shall pay as wages of the . . . five gerahs, as wages of the potter five gerahs, of a tailor five gerahs, of . . . gerahs, . . . of a ropemaker four gerahs, of . . .. gerahs, of a mason . . . gerahs per day.

    275. If any one hire a ferryboat, he shall pay three gerahs in money per day.

    276. If he hire a freight-boat, he shall pay two and one-half gerahs per day.

    277. If any one hire a ship of sixty gur, he shall pay one-sixth of a shekel in money as its hire per day.

    278. If any one buy a male or female slave, and before a month has elapsed the benu-disease be developed, he shall return the slave to the seller, and receive the money which he had paid.

    279. If any one buy a male or female slave, and a third party claim it, the seller is liable for the claim.

    280. If while in a foreign country a man buy a male or female slave belonging to another of his own country; if when he return home the owner of the male or female slave recognize it: if the male or female slave be a native of the country, he shall give them back without any money.

    281. If they are from another country, the buyer shall declare the amount of money paid therefor to the merchant, and keep the male or female slave.

    282. If a slave say to his master: "You are not my master," if they convict him his master shall cut off his ear.

    THE EPILOGUE

    LAWS of justice which Hammurabi, the wise king, established. A righteous law, and pious statute did he teach the land. Hammurabi, the protecting king am I. I have not withdrawn myself from the men, whom Bel gave to me, the rule over whom Marduk gave to me, I was not negligent, but I made them a peaceful abiding-place. I expounded all great difficulties, I made the light shine upon them. With the mighty weapons which Zamama and Ishtar entrusted to me, with the keen vision with which Ea endowed me, with the wisdom that Marduk gave me, I have uprooted the enemy above and below (in north and south), subdued the earth, brought prosperity to the land, guaranteed security to the inhabitants in their homes; a disturber was not permitted. The great gods have called me, I am the salvation-bearing shepherd, whose staff is straight, the good shadow that is spread over my city; on my breast I cherish the inhabitants of the land of Sumer and Akkad; in my shelter I have let them repose in peace; in my deep wisdom have I enclosed them. That the strong might not injure the weak, in order to protect the widows and orphans, I have in Babylon the city where Anu and Bel raise high their head, in E-Sagil, the Temple, whose foundations stand firm as heaven and earth, in order to bespeak justice in the land, to settle all disputes, and heal all injuries, set up these my precious words, written upon my memorial stone, before the image of me, as king of righteousness.

    The king who ruleth among the kings of the cities am I. My words are well considered; there is no wisdom like unto mine. By the command of Shamash, the great judge of heaven and earth, let righteousness go forth in the land: by the order of Marduk, my lord, let no destruction befall my monument. In E-Sagil, which I love, let my name be ever repeated; let the oppressed, who has a case at law, come and stand before this my image as king of righteousness; let him read the inscription, and understand my precious words: the inscription will explain his case to him; he will find out what is just, and his heart will be glad, so that he will say:

    "Hammurabi is a ruler, who is as a father to his subjects, who holds the words of Marduk in reverence, who has achieved conquest for Marduk over the north and south, who rejoices the heart of Marduk, his lord, who has bestowed benefits for ever and ever on his subjects, and has established order in the land."

    When he reads the record, let him pray with full heart to Marduk, my lord, and Zarpanit, my lady; and then shall the protecting deities and the gods, who frequent E-Sagil, graciously grant the desires daily presented before Marduk, my lord, and Zarpanit, my lady.

    In future time, through all coming generations, let the king, who may be in the land, observe the words of righteousness which I have written on my monument; let him not alter the law of the land which I have given, the edicts which I have enacted; my monument let him not mar. If such a ruler have wisdom, and be able to keep his land in order, he shall observe the words which I have written in this inscription; the rule, statute, and law of the land which I have given; the decisions which I have made will this inscription show him; let him rule his subjects accordingly, speak justice to them, give right decisions, root out the miscreants and criminals from this land, and grant prosperity to his subjects.

    Hammurabi, the king of righteousness, on whom Shamash has conferred right (or law) am I. My words are well considered; my deeds are not equaled; to bring low those that were high; to humble the proud, to expel insolence. If a succeeding ruler considers my words, which I have written in this my inscription, if he do not annul my law, nor corrupt my words, nor change my monument, then may Shamash lengthen that king's reign, as he has that of me, the king of righteousness, that he may reign in righteousness over his subjects. If this ruler do not esteem my words, which I have written in my inscription, if he despise my curses, and fear not the curse of God, if he destroy the law which I have given, corrupt my words, change my monument, efface my name, write his name there, or on account of the curses commission another so to do, that man, whether king or ruler, patesi, or commoner, no matter what he be, may the great God (Anu), the Father of the gods, who has ordered my rule, withdraw from him the glory of royalty, break his scepter, curse his destiny. May Bel, the lord, who fixeth destiny, whose command can not be altered, who has made my kingdom great, order a rebellion which his hand can not control; may he let the wind of the overthrow of his habitation blow, may he ordain the years of his rule in groaning, years of scarcity, years of famine, darkness without light, death with seeing eyes be fated to him; may he (Bel) order with his potent mouth the destruction of his city, the dispersion of his subjects, the cutting off of his rule, the removal of his name and memory from the land. May Belit, the great Mother, whose command is potent in E-Kur (the Babylonian Olympus), the Mistress, who harkens graciously to my petitions, in the seat of judgment and decision (where Bel fixes destiny), turn his affairs evil before Bel, and put the devastation of his land, the destruction of his subjects, the pouring out of his life like water into the mouth of King Bel. May Ea, the great ruler, whose fated decrees come to pass, the thinker of the gods, the omniscient, who maketh long the days of my life, withdraw understanding and wisdom from him, lead him to forgetfulness, shut up his rivers at their sources, and not allow corn or sustenance for man to grow in his land. May Shamash, the great Judge of heaven and earth, who supporteth all means of livelihood, Lord of life-courage, shatter his dominion, annul his law, destroy his way, make vain the march of his troops, send him in his visions forecasts of the uprooting of the foundations of his throne and of the destruction of his land. May the condemnation of Shamash overtake him forthwith; may he be deprived of water above among the living, and his spirit below in the earth. May Sin (the Moon-god), the Lord of Heaven, the divine father, whose crescent gives light among the gods, take away the crown and regal throne from him; may he put upon him heavy guilt, great decay, that nothing may be lower than he. May he destine him as fated, days, months and years of dominion filled with sighing and tears, increase of the burden of dominion, a life that is like unto death. May Adad, the lord of fruitfulness, ruler of heaven and earth, my helper, withhold from him rain from heaven, and the flood of water from the springs, destroying his land by famine and want; may he rage mightily over his city, and make his land into flood-hills (heaps of ruined cities). May Zamama, the great warrior, the first-born son of E-Kur, who goeth at my right hand, shatter his weapons on the field of battle, turn day into night for him, and let his foe triumph over him. May Ishtar, the goddess of fighting and war, who unfetters my weapons, my gracious protecting spirit, who loveth my dominion, curse his kingdom in her angry heart; in her great wrath, change his grace into evil, and shatter his weapons on the place of fighting and war. May she create disorder and sedition for him, strike down his warriors, that the earth may drink their blood, and throw down the piles of corpses of his warriors on the field; may she not grant him a life of mercy, deliver him into the hands of his enemies, and imprison him in the land of his enemies. May Nergal, the might among the gods, whose contest is irresistible, who grants me victory, in his great might burn up his subjects like a slender reedstalk, cut off his limbs with his mighty weapons, and shatter him like an earthen image. May Nin-tu, the sublime mistress of the lands, the fruitful mother, deny him a son, vouchsafe him no name, give him no successor among men. May Nin-karak, the daughter of Anu, who adjudges grace to me, cause to come upon his members in E-kur high fever, severe wounds, that can not be healed, whose nature the physician does not understand, which he can not treat with dressing, which, like the bite of death, can not be removed, until they have sapped away his life.

    May he lament the loss of his life-power, and may the great gods of heaven and earth, the Anunaki, altogether inflict a curse and evil upon the confines of the temple, the walls of this E-barra (the Sun temple of Sippara), upon his dominion, his land, his warriors, his subjects, and his troops. May Bel curse him with the potent curses of his mouth that can not be altered, and may they come upon him forthwith.

    Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for I have a sonic screwdriver, a tricorder, and a Type 2 phaser.
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #97 - April 26, 2017, 12:44 PM

    Wow, Egyptian mythology looks really interesting.
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #98 - April 26, 2017, 01:58 PM

    It's Babylonian, closer to modern Iraq than Egypt....here's an Epic of Creation from the same era. They were written on cuneiform tablets that look something like this:



    These texts were written around the 1700s BCE, about 800 years after the construction of the pyramids at Giza and a thousand years before the first books of the Bible.

    ENUMA ELISH
    THE EPIC OF CREATION
    L.W. King Translator
    (from The Seven Tablets of Creation, London 1902)


    THE FIRST TABLET

    When in the height heaven was not named,
    And the earth beneath did not yet bear a name,
    And the primeval Apsu, who begat them,
    And chaos, Tiamut, the mother of them both
    Their waters were mingled together,
    And no field was formed, no marsh was to be seen;
    When of the gods none had been called into being,
    And none bore a name, and no destinies were ordained;
    Then were created the gods in the midst of heaven,
    Lahmu and Lahamu were called into being...
    Ages increased,...
    Then Ansar and Kisar were created, and over them....
    Long were the days, then there came forth.....
    Anu, their son,...
    Ansar and Anu...
    And the god Anu...
    Nudimmud, whom his fathers, his begetters.....
    Abounding in all wisdom,...'
    He was exceeding strong...
    He had no rival -
    Thus were established and were... the great gods.
    But Tiamat and Apsu were still in confusion...
    They were troubled and...
    In disorder...
    Apru was not diminished in might...
    And Tiamat roared...
    She smote, and their deeds...
    Their way was evil...
    Then Apsu, the begetter of the great gods,
    Cried unto Mummu, his minister, and said unto him:
    "O Mummu, thou minister that rejoicest my spirit,
    Come, unto Tiamut let us go!
    So they went and before Tiamat they lay down,
    They consulted on a plan with regard to the gods, their sons.
    Apsu opened his mouth and spake,
    And unto Tiamut, the glistening one, he addressed the word:
    ...their way...
    By day I can not rest, by night I can not lie down in peace.
    But I will destroy their way, I will...
    Let there be lamentation, and let us lie down again in peace."
    When Tiamat heard these words,
    She raged and cried aloud...
    She... grievously...,
    She uttered a curse, and unto Apsu she spake:
    "What then shall we do?
    Let their way be made difficult, and let us lie down again in peace."
    Mummu answered, and gave counsel unto Apsu,
    ...and hostile to the gods was the counsel Mummu gave:
    Come, their way is strong, but thou shalt destroy it;
    Then by day shalt thou have rest, by night shalt thou lie down in peace."
    Apsu harkened unto him and his countenance grew bright,
    Since he (Mummu) planned evil against the gods his sons.
    ... he was afraid...,
    His knees became weak; they gave way beneath him,
    Because of the evil which their first-born had planned.
    ... their... they altered.
    ... they...,
    Lamentation they sat in sorrow
    ..................
    Then Ea, who knoweth all that is, went up and he beheld their muttering.

    [about 30 illegible lines]

    ... he spake:
    ... thy... he hath conquered and
    ... he weepeth and sitteth in tribulation.
    ... of fear,
    ... we shall not lie down in peace.
    ... Apsu is laid waste,
    ... and Mummu, who were taken captive, in...
    ... thou didst...
    ... let us lie down in peace.
    ... they will smite....
    ... let us lie down in peace.
    ... thou shalt take vengeance for them,
    ... unto the tempest shalt thou...!"
    And Tiamat harkened unto the word of the bright god, and said:
    ... shalt thou entrust! let us wage war!"
    ... the gods in the midst of...
    ... for the gods did she create.
    They banded themselves together and at the side of Tiamat they advanced;
    They were furious; they devised mischief without resting night and day.
    They prepared for battle, fuming and raging;
    They joined their forces and made war,
    Ummu-Hubur [Tiamat] who formed all things,
    Made in addition weapons invincible; she spawned monster-serpents,
    Sharp of tooth, and merciless of fang;
    With poison, instead of blood, she filled their bodies.
    Fierce monster-vipers she clothed with terror,
    With splendor she decked them, she made them of lofty stature.
    Whoever beheld them, terror overcame him,
    Their bodies reared up and none could withstand their attack.
    She set up vipers and dragons, and the monster Lahamu,
    And hurricanes, and raging hounds, and scorpion-men,
    And mighty tempests, and fish-men, and rams;
    They bore cruel weapons, without fear of the fight.
    Her commands were mighty, none could resist them;
    After this fashion, huge of stature, she made eleven [kinds of] monsters.
    Among the gods who were her sons, inasmuch as he had given her support,
    She exalted Kingu; in their midst she raised him to power.
    To march before the forces, to lead the host,
    To give the battle-signal, to advance to the attack,
    To direct the battle, to control the fight,
    Unto him she entrusted; in costly raiment she made him sit, saying:
    I have uttered thy spell, in the assembly of the gods I have raised thee to power.
    The dominion over all the gods have I entrusted unto him.
    Be thou exalted, thou my chosen spouse,
    May they magnify thy name over all of them the Anunnaki."
    She gave him the Tablets of Destiny, on his breast she laid them, saying:
    Thy command shall not be without avail, and the word of thy mouth shall be established."
    Now Kingu, thus exalted, having received the power of Anu,
    Decreed the fate among the gods his sons, saying:
    "Let the opening of your mouth quench the Fire-god;
    Whoso is exalted in the battle, let him display his might!"

    THE SECOND TABLET

    Tiamat made weighty her handiwork,
    Evil she wrought against the gods her children.
    To avenge Apsu, Tiamat planned evil,
    But how she had collected her forces, the god unto Ea divulged.
    Ea harkened to this thing, and
    He was grievously afflicted and he sat in sorrow.
    The days went by, and his anger was appeased,
    And to the place of Ansar his father he took his way.
    He went and, standing before Ansar, the father who begat him,
    All that Tiamat had plotted he repeated unto him,
    Saying, "Tiamat our mother hath conceived a hatred for us,
    With all her force she rageth, full of wrath.
    All the gods have turned to her,
    With those, whom ye created, thev go at her side.
    They are banded together and at the side of Tiamat they advance;
    They are furious, they devise mischief without resting night and day.
    They prepare for battle, fuming and raging;
    They have joined their forces and are making war.
    Ummu-Hubur, who formed all things,
    Hath made in addition weapons invincible; she hath spawned monster-serpents,
    Sharp of tooth, and merciless of fang.
    With poison, instead of blood, she hath filled their bodies.
    Fierce monster-vipers she hath clothed with terror,
    With splendor she hath decked them; she hath made them of lofty stature.
    Whoever beholdeth them is overcome by terror,
    Their bodies rear up and none can withstand their attack.
    She hath set up vipers, and dragons, and the monster Lahamu,
    And hurricanes and raging hounds, and scorpion-men,
    And mighty tempests, and fish-men and rams;
    They bear cruel weapons, without fear of the fight.
    Her commands are mighty; none can resist them;
    After this fashion, huge of stature, hath she made eleven monsters.
    Among the gods who are her sons, inasmuch as he hath given her support,
    She hath exalted Kingu; in their midst she hath raised him to power.
    To march before the forces, to lead the host,
    To give the battle-signal, to advance to the attack.
    To direct the battle, to control the fight,
    Unto him hath she entrusted; in costly raiment she hath made him sit, saving:.
    I have uttered thy spell; in the assembly of the gods I have raised thee to power,
    The dominion over all the gods have I entrusted unto thee.
    Be thou exalted, thou my chosen spouse,
    May they magnify thy name over all of them
    She hath given him the Tablets of Destiny, on his breast she laid them, saying:
    'Thy command shall not be without avail, and the word of thy mouth shall be established.'
    Now Kingu, thus exalted, having received the power of Anu,
    Decreed the fate for the gods, her sons, saying:
    'Let the opening of your mouth quench the Fire-god;
    Whoso is exalted in the battle, let him display his might!'"
    When Ansar heard how Tiamat was mightily in revolt,
    he bit his lips, his mind was not at peace,
    ..., he made a bitter lamentation:
    ... battle,
    ... thou...
    Mummu and Apsu thou hast smitten
    But Tiamat hath exalted Kingu, and where is one who can oppose her?
    ... deliberation
    ... the ... of the gods, -Nudimmud.

    [A gap of about a dozen lines occurs here.]

    Ansar unto his son addressed the word:
    "... my mighty hero,
    Whose strength is great and whose onslaught can not be withstood,
    Go and stand before Tiamat,
    That her spirit may be appeased, that her heart may be merciful.
    But if she will not harken unto thy word,
    Our word shalt thou speak unto her, that she may be pacified."
    He heard the word of his father Ansar
    And he directed his path to her, toward her he took the way.
    Ann drew nigh, he beheld the muttering of Tiamat,
    But he could not withstand her, and he turned back.
    ... Ansar
    ... he spake unto him:

    [A gap of over twenty lines occurs here.]

    an avenger...
    ... valiant
    ... in the place of his decision
    ... he spake unto him:
    ... thy father
    " Thou art my son, who maketh merciful his heart.
    ... to the battle shalt thou draw nigh,
    he that shall behold thee shall have peace."
    And the lord rejoiced at the word of his father,
    And he drew nigh and stood before Ansar.
    Ansar beheld him and his heart was filled with joy,
    He kissed him on the lips and his fear departed from him.
    "O my father, let not the word of thy lips be overcome,
    Let me go, that I may accomplish all that is in thy heart.
    O Ansar, let not the word of thy lips be overcome,
    Let me go, that I may accomplish all that is in thy heart."
    What man is it, who hath brought thee forth to battle?
    ... Tiamat, who is a woman, is armed and attacketh thee.
    ... rejoice and be glad;
    The neck of Tiamat shalt thou swiftly trample under foot.
    ... rejoice and be glad;
    The neck of Tiamat shalt thou swiftly trample under foot.
    0 my son, who knoweth all wisdom,
    Pacify Tiamat with thy pure incantation.
    Speedily set out upon thy way,
    For thy blood shall not be poured out; thou shalt return again."
    The lord rejoiced at the word of his father,
    His heart exulted, and unto his father he spake:
    "O Lord of the gods, Destiny of the great gods,
    If I, your avenger,
    Conquer Tiamat and give you life,
    Appoint an assembly, make my fate preeminent and proclaim it.
    In Upsukkinaku seat yourself joyfully together,
    With my word in place of you will I decree fate.
    May whatsoever I do remain unaltered,
    May the word of my lips never be chanced nor made of no avail."


    THE THIRD TABLET

    Ansar opened his mouth, and
    Unto Gaga, his minister, spake the word.
    "O Gaga, thou minister that rejoicest my spirit,
    Unto Lahmu and Lahamu will I send thee.
    ... thou canst attain,
    ... thou shalt cause to be brought before thee.
    ... let the gods, all of them,
    Make ready for a feast, at a banquet let them sit,
    Let them eat bread, let them mix wine,
    That for Marduk, their avenger they may decree the fate.
    Go, Gaga, stand before them,
    And all that I tell thee, repeat unto them, and say:
    'Ansar, vour son, hath sent me,
    The purpose of his heart he hath made known unto me.
    The purpose of his heart he hath made known unto me.
    He saith that Tiamat our mother hath conceived a hatred for us,
    With all her force she rageth, full of wrath.
    All the gods have turned to her,
    With those, whom ye created, they go at her side.
    They are banded together, and at the side of Tiamat they advance;
    They are furious, they devise mischief without resting night and day.
    They prepare for battle, fuming and raging;
    They have joined their forces and are making war.
    Ummu-Hubur, who formed all things,
    Hath made in addition weapons invincible; she hath spawned monster-serpents,
    Sharp of tooth and merciless of fang.
    With poison, instead of blood, she hath filled their bodies.
    Fierce monster-vipers she hath clothed with terror,
    With splendor she hath decked them; she hath made them of lofty stature.
    Whoever beboldeth them, terror overcometh him,
    Their bodies rear up and none can withstand their attack.
    She hath set up vipers, and dragons, and the monster Lahamu,
    And hurricanes, and raging bounds, and scorpion-men,
    And mighty tempests, and fish-men, and rams;
    They bear merciless weapons, without fear of the fight.
    Her commands are miahty; none can. resist them;
    After this fashion, huge of stature, hath she made eleven monsters.
    Among the gods who are her sons, inasmuch as he hath given her support,
    She hath exalted Kingu; in their midst she hath raised him to power.
    To march before the forces, to lead the host,
    To give the battle-signal, to advance to the attack,
    To direct the battle, to control the fight,
    Unto him hath she entrusted; in costly raiment she hath made him sit, saying:
    I have uttered thy spell; in the assembly of the gods
    I have raised thee to power,
    The dominion over all the gods have I entrusted unto thee.
    Be thou exalted, thou my chosen spouse,
    May they magnify thy name over all of them ... the Anunnaki."
    She hath given him the Tablets of Destiny, on his breast she laid them, saying:
    Thy command shall not be without avail, and the word of thy mouth shall be established."
    Now Kingu, thus exalted, having received the power of Anu,
    Decreed the fate for the gods, her sons, saving:
    Let the opening of your mouth quench the Fire-god;
    Whoso is exalted in the battle, let him display his might!"
    I sent Anu, but he could not withstand her;
    Nudimmud was afraid and turned back.
    But Marduk hath set out, the director of the gods, your son;
    To set out against Tiamat his heart hath prompted him.
    He opened his mouth and spake unto me, saying: "If I, your avenger,
    Conquer Tiamat and give you life,
    Appoint an assembly, make my fate preeminent and proclaim it.
    In Upsukkinaku seat yourself joyfully together;
    With my word in place of you will I decree fate.
    May whatsoever I do remain unaltered,
    May the word of my lips never be changed nor made of no avail."'
    Hasten, therefore, and swiftly decree for him the fate which you bestow,
    That he may go and fight your strong enemy.
    Gaga went, he took his way and
    Humbly before Lahmu and Lahamu, the gods, his fathers,
    He made obeisance, and he kissed the ground at their feet.
    He humbled himself; then he stood up and spake unto them saying:
    "Ansar, your son, hath sent me,
    The purpose of his heart he hath made known unto me.
    He saith that Tiamat our mother hath conceived a hatred for us,
    With all her force she rageth, full of wrath.
    All the gods have turned to her,
    With those, whom ye created, they go at her side.
    They are banded together and at the side of Tiamat they advance;
    They are furious, they devise mischief without resting night and day.
    They prepare for battle, fuming and raging;
    They have joined their forces and are making war.
    Ummu-Hubur, who formed all things,
    Hath made in addition weapons invincible; she hath spawned monster-serpents,
    Sharp of tooth and merciless of fang.
    With poison, instead of blood, she hath filled their bodies.
    Fierce monster-vipers she hath clothed with terror,
    With splendor she hath decked them, she hath made them of lofty stature.
    Whoever beboldeth them, terror overcometh him,
    Their bodies rear up and none can withstand their attack.
    She hath set up vipers, and dragons, and the monster Lahamu,
    And hurricanes, and raging hounds, and scorpion-men,
    And mighty tempests, and fish-men, and rams;
    They bear merciless weapons, without fear of the fight.
    Her commands are mighty; none can resist them;
    After this fashion, huge of stature, hath she made eleven monsters.
    Among the gods who are her sons, inasmuch as he hath given her support,
    She hath exalted Kingu; in their midst she hath raised him to power.
    To march before the forces, to lead the host,
    To give the battle-signal, to advance to the attack, To direct the battle, to control the fight,
    Unto him hath she entrusted; in costlv raiment she hath made him sit, saving:
    I have uttered thy spell; in the assembly of the gods I have raised thee to power,
    The dominion over all the gods have I entrusted unto thee.
    Be thou exalted, thou my chosen spouse,
    May they magnify thy name over all of them...the Anunnaki.
    She hath given him the Tablets of Destiny on his breast she laid them, saving:
    Thy command shall not be without avail, and the word of thy mouth shall be established.'
    Now Kingu, thus exalted, having received the power of Anu,
    Decreed the fate for the gods, her sons, saying:
    'Let the opening of your mouth quench the Fire-god;
    Whoso is exalted in the battle, let him display his might!'
    I sent Anu, but he could not withstand her;
    Nudimmud was afraid and turned back.
    But Marduk hath set out, the director of the gods, your son;
    To set out against Tiamat his heart hath prompted him.
    He opened his mouth and spake unto me, saying:
    'If I, your avenger,
    Conquer Tiamat and give you life,
    Appoint an assembly, make my fate preeminent and proclaim it.
    In Upsukkinaku seat yourselves joyfully together;
    With my word in place of you will I decree fate.
    May, whatsoever I do remain unaltered,
    May the word of my lips never be changed nor made of no avail.'
    Hasten, therefore, and swiftly decree for him the fate which you bestow,
    That he may go and fight your strong enemy!
    Lahmu and Lahamu heard and cried aloud
    All of the Igigi [The elder gods] wailed bitterly, saying:
    What has been altered so that they should
    We do not understand the deed of Tiamat!
    Then did they collect and go,
    The great gods, all of them, who decree fate.
    They entered in before Ansar, they filled...
    They kissed one another, in the assembly...;
    They made ready for the feast, at the banquet they sat;
    They ate bread, they mixed sesame-wine.
    The sweet drink, the mead, confused their...
    They were drunk with drinking, their bodies were filled.
    They were wholly at ease, their spirit was exalted;
    Then for Marduk, their avenger, did they decree the fate.

    THE FOURTH TABLET

    They prepared for him a lordly chamber,
    Before his fathers as prince he took his place.
    "Thou art chiefest among the great gods,
    Thy fate is unequaled, thy word is Anu!
    O Marduk, thou art chiefest among the great gods,
    Thy fate is unequaled, thy word is Anu!
    Henceforth not without avail shall be thy command,
    In thy power shall it be to exalt and to abase.
    Established shall be the word of thy mouth, irresistible shall be thy command,
    None among the gods shall transgress thy boundary.
    Abundance, the desire of the shrines of the gods,
    Shall be established in thy sanctuary, even though they lack offerings.
    O Marduk, thou art our avenger!
    We give thee sovereignty over the whole world.
    Sit thou down in might; be exalted in thy command.
    Thy weapon shall never lose its power; it shall crush thy foe.
    O Lord, spare the life of him that putteth his trust in thee,
    But as for the god who began the rebellion, pour out his life."
    Then set they in their midst a garment,
    And unto Marduk,- their first-born they spake:
    "May thy fate, O lord, be supreme among the gods,
    To destroy and to create; speak thou the word, and thy command shall be fulfilled.
    Command now and let the garment vanish;
    And speak the word again and let the garment reappear!
    Then he spake with his mouth, and the garment vanished;
    Again he commanded it, and. the garment reappeared.
    When the gods, his fathers, beheld the fulfillment of his word,
    They rejoiced, and they did homage unto him, saying, " Marduk is king!"
    They bestowed upon him the scepter, and the throne, and the ring,
    They give him an invincible weapony which overwhelmeth the foe.
    Go, and cut off the life of Tiamat,
    And let the wind carry her blood into secret places."
    After the gods his fathers had decreed for the lord his fate,
    They caused him to set out on a path of prosperity and success.
    He made ready the bow, he chose his weapon,
    He slung a spear upon him and fastened it...
    He raised the club, in his right hand he grasped it,
    The bow and the quiver he hung at his side.
    He set the lightning in front of him,
    With burning flame he filled his body.
    He made a net to enclose the inward parts of Tiamat,
    The four winds he stationed so that nothing of her might escape;
    The South wind and the North wind and the East wind and the West wind
    He brought near to the net, the gift of his father Anu.
    He created the evil wind, and the tempest, and the hurricane,
    And the fourfold wind, and the sevenfold wind, and the whirlwind, and the wind which had no equal;
    He sent forth the winds which he had created, the seven of them;
    To disturb the inward parts of Tiamat, they followed after him.
    Then the lord raised the thunderbolt, his mighty weapon,
    He mounted the chariot, the storm unequaled for terror,
    He harnessed and yoked unto it four horses,
    Destructive, ferocious, overwhelming, and swift of pace;
    ... were their teeth, they were flecked with foam;
    They were skilled in... , they had been trained to trample underfoot.
    ... . mighty in battle,
    Left and right....
    His garment was... , he was clothed with terror,
    With overpowering brightness his head was crowned.
    Then he set out, he took his way,
    And toward the raging Tiamat he set his face.
    On his lips he held ...,
    ... he grasped in his hand.
    Then they beheld him, the gods beheld him,
    The gods his fathers beheld him, the gods beheld him.
    And the lord drew nigh, he gazed upon the inward parts of Tiamat,
    He perceived the muttering of Kingu, her spouse.
    As Marduk gazed, Kingu was troubled in his gait,
    His will was destroyed and his motions ceased.
    And the gods, his helpers, who marched by his side,
    Beheld their leader's..., and their sight was troubled.
    But Tiamat... , she turned not her neck,
    With lips that failed not she uttered rebellious words:
    "... thy coming as lord of the gods,
    From their places have they gathered, in thy place are they! "
    Then the lord raised the thunderbolt, his mighty weapon,
    And against Tiamat, who was raging, thus he sent the word:
    Thou art become great, thou hast exalted thyself on high,
    And thy heart hath prompted thee to call to battle.
    ... their fathers...,
    ... their... thou hatest...
    Thou hast exalted Kingu to be thy spouse,
    Thou hast... him, that, even as Anu, he should issue deerees.
    thou hast followed after evil,
    And against the gods my fathers thou hast contrived thy wicked plan.
    Let then thy host be equipped, let thy weapons be girded on!
    Stand! I and thou, let us join battle!
    When Tiamat heard these words,
    She was like one posessed, .she lost her reason.
    Tiamat uttered wild, piercing cries,
    She trembled and shook to her very foundations.
    She recited an incantation, she pronounced her spell,
    And the gods of the battle cried out for their weapons.
    Then advanced Tiamat and Marduk, the counselor of the gods;
    To the fight they came on, to the battle they drew nigh.
    The lord spread out his net and caught her,
    And the evil wind that was behind him he let loose in her face.
    As Tiamat opened her mouth to its full extent,
    He drove in the evil wind, while as yet she had not shut her lips.
    The terrible winds filled her belly,
    And her courage was taken from her, and her mouth she opened wide.
    He seized the spear and burst her belly,
    He severed her inward parts, he pierced her heart.
    He overcame her and cut off her life;
    He cast down her body and stood upon it.
    When he had slain Tiamat, the leader,
    Her might was broken, her host was scattered.
    And the gods her helpers, who marched by her side,
    Trembled, and were afraid, and turned back.
    They took to flight to save their lives;
    But they were surrounded, so that they could not escape.
    He took them captive, he broke their weapons;
    In the net they were caught and in the snare they sat down.
    The ... of the world they filled with cries of grief.
    They received punishment from him, they were held in bondage.
    And on the eleven creatures which she had filled with the power of striking terror,
    Upon the troop of devils, who marched at her...,
    He brought affliction, their strength he...;
    Them and their opposition he trampled under his feet.
    Moreover, Kingu, who had been exalted over them,
    He conquered, and with the god Dug-ga he counted him.
    He took from him the Tablets of Destiny that were not rightly his,
    He sealed them with a seal and in his own breast he laid them.
    Now after the hero Marduk had conquered and cast down his enemies,
    And had made the arrogant foe even like
    And had fully established Ansar's triumph over the enemy
    And had attained the purpose of Nudimmud,
    Over the captive gods he strengthened his durance,
    And unto Tiamat, whom he had conquered, he returned.
    And the lord stood upon Tiamat's hinder parts,
    And with his merciless club he smashed her skull.
    He cut through the channels of her blood,
    And he made the North wind bear it away into secret places.
    His fathers beheld, and they rejoiced and were glad;
    Presents and gifts they brought unto him.
    Then the lord rested, gazing upon her dead body,
    While he divided the flesh of the ... , and devised a cunning plan.
    He split her up like a flat fish into two halves;
    One half of her he stablished as a covering for heaven.
    He fixed a bolt, he stationed a watchman,
    And bade them not to let her waters come forth.
    He passed through the heavens, he surveyed the regions thereof,
    And over against the Deep he set the dwelling of Nudimmud.
    And the lord measured the structure of the Deep,
    And he founded E-sara, a mansion like unto it.
    The mansion E-sara which he created as heaven,
    He caused Anu, Bel, and Ea in their districts to inhabit.

    THE FIFTH TABLET

    He (Marduk) made the stations for the great gods;
    The stars, their images, as the stars of the Zodiac, he fixed.
    He ordained the year and into sections he divided it;
    For the twelve months he fixed three stars.
    After he had ... the days of the year ... images,
    He founded the station of Nibir [the planet Jupiter] to determine their bounds;
    That none might err or go astray,
    He set the station of Bel and Ea along with him.
    He opened great gates on both sides,
    He made strong the bolt on the left and on the right.
    In the midst thereof he fixed the zenith;
    The Moon-god he caused to shine forth, the night he entrusted to him.
    He appointed him, a being of the night, to determine the days;
    Every month without ceasing with the crown he covered him, saying:
    "At the beginning of the month, when thou shinest upon the land,
    Thou commandest the horns to determine six days,
    And on the seventh day to divide the crown.
    On the fourteenth day thou shalt stand opposite, the half....
    When the Sun-god on the foundation of heaven...thee,
    The ... thou shalt cause to ..., and thou shalt make his...
    ... unto the path of the Sun-god shalt thou cause to draw nigh,
    And on the ... day thou shalt stand opposite, and the Sun-god shall...
    ... to traverse her way.
    ... thou shalt cause to draw nigh, and thou shalt judge the right.
    ... to destroy..."

    [Nearly fifty lines are here lost.]

    The gods, his fathers, beheld the net which he had made,
    They beheld the bow and how its work was accomplished.
    They praised the work which he had done...
    Then Anu raised the ... in the assembly of the gods. He kissed the bow, saving, " It is...!"
    And thus he named the names of the bow, saving,
    "'Long-wood' shall be one name, and the second name shall be ...,
    And its third name shall be the Bow-star, in heaven shall it...!"
    Then he fixed a station for it...
    Now after the fate of...
    He set a throne...
    ...in heaven...
    [The remainder of this tablet is missing.]

    THE SIXTH TABLET

    When Marduk heard the word of the gods,
    His heart prompted him and he devised a cunning plan.
    He opened his mouth and unto Ea he spake
    That which he had conceived in his heart he imparted unto him:
    "My blood will I take and bone will I fashion
    I will make man, that man may
    I will create man who shall inhabit the earth,
    That the service of the gods may be established, and that their shrines may be built.
    But I will alter the ways of the gods, and I will change their paths;
    Together shall they be oppressed and unto evil shall they....
    And Ea answered him and spake the word:
    "... the ... of the gods I have changed
    ... and one...
    ... shall be destroyed and men will I...
    ... and the gods .
    ... and they..."

    [The rest of the text is wanting with the exception of
    the last few lines of the tablet, which read as follows.]

    They rejoiced...
    In Upsukkinnaku they set their dwelling.
    Of the heroic son, their avenger, they cried:
    " We, whom he succored.... !"

    They seated themselves and in the assembly they named him...,
    They all cried aloud, they exalted him...

    THE SEVENTH TABLET

    O Asari, [Marduk] "Bestower of planting," "Founder of sowing"
    "Creator of grain and plants," "who caused the green herb to spring up!"
    O Asaru-alim, [Mardk] "who is revered in the house of counsel," "who aboundeth in counsel,"
    The gods paid homage, fear took hold upon them!

    O Asaru-alim-nuna, [Marduk] "the mighty one," "the Light of the father who begat him,"
    "Who directeth the decrees of Anu Bel, and Ea!"
    He was their patron, be ordained their...;
    He, whose provision is abundance, goeth forth...
    Tutu [Marduk] is "He who created them anew";
    Should their wants be pure, then are they satisfied;
    Should he make an incantation, then are the gods appeased;
    Should they attack him in anger, he withstandeth their onslaught!
    Let him therefore be exalted, and in the assembly of the gods let him... ;
    None among the gods can rival him!
    15 Tutu [Marduk] is Zi-ukkina, "the Life of the host of the gods,"
    Who established for the gods the bright heavens.
    He set them on their way, and ordained their path;
    Never shall his ... deeds be forgotten among men.
    Tutu as Zi-azag thirdly they named, "the Bringer of Purification,"
    "The God of the Favoring Breeze," "the Lord of Hearing and Mercy,"
    "The Creator of Fulness and Abundance," " the Founder of Plenteousness,"
    "Who increaseth all that is small."
    In sore distress we felt his favoring breeze,"
    Let them say, let them pay reverence, let them bow in humility before him!
    Tutu as Aga-azag may mankind fourthly magnify!
    "The Lord of the Pure Incantation," " the Quickener of the Dead,"
    "Who had mercy upon the captive gods,"
    "Who removed the yoke from upon the gods his enemies,"
    "For their forgiveness did he create mankind,"
    "The Merciful One, with whom it is to bestow life!"
    May his deeds endure, may they never be forgotten ,
    In the mouth of mankind whom his hands have made!
    Tutu as Mu-azag, fifthly, his "Pure incantation" may their mouth proclaim,
    Who through his Pure Incantation hath destroyed all the evil ones!"
    Sag-zu, [Marduk] "who knoweth the heart of the gods," " who seeth through the innermost part!"
    "The evil-doer he hath not caused to go forth with him!"
    "Founder of the assembly of the gods," who ... their heart!"
    "Subduer of the disobedient," "...!"
    "Director of Righteousness," "...,"
    " Who rebellion and...!"
    Tutu as Zi-si, "the ...,"
    "Who put an end to anger," "who...!"
    Tutu as Suh-kur, thirdly, "the Destroyer of the foe,"
    "Who put their plans to confusion,"
    "Who destroyed all the wicked," "...,"
    ... let them... !

    [There is a gap here of sixty lines. But somewhere among the lost lines belong the following fragments.]

    who...
    He named the four quarters of the world, mankind hecreated,
    And upon him understanding...
    "The mighty one...!"
    Agil...
    "The Creator of the earth...!"
    Zulummu... .
    "The Giver of counsel and of whatsoever...!"
    Mummu, " the Creator of...!"
    Mulil, the heavens...,
    "Who for...!"
    Giskul, let...,
    "Who brought the gods to naught....!"
    ...............
    ... " the Chief of all lords,"
    ... supreme is his might!
    Lugal-durmah, "the King of the band of the gods," " the Lord of rulers."
    "Who is exalted in a royal habitation,"
    "Who among the gods is gloriously supreme!
    Adu-nuna, " the Counselor of Ea," who created the gods his fathers,
    Unto the path of whose majesty
    No god can ever attain!
    ... in Dul-azag be made it known,
    ... pure is his dwelling!
    ... the... of those without understanding is Lugaldul-azaga!
    ... supreme is his might!
    ... their... in the midst of Tiamat,
    ... of the battle!

    [Here follows the better-preserved ending.]

    ... the star, which shineth in the heavens.
    May he hold the Beginning and the Future, may they pay homage unto him,
    Saying, "He who forced his way through the midst of Tiamat without resting,
    Let his name be Nibiru, 'the Seizer of the Midst'!
    For the stars of heaven he upheld the paths,
    He shepherded all the gods like sheep!
    He conquered Tiamat, he troubled and ended her life,"
    In the future of mankind, when the days grow old,
    May this be heard without ceasing; may it hold sway forever!
    Since he created the realm of heaven and fashioned the firm earth,
    The Lord of the World," the father Bel hath called his name.
    This title, which all the Spirits of Heaven proclaimed,
    Did Ea hear, and his spirit was rejoiced, and he said:
    "He whose name his fathers have made glorious,
    Shall be even as I, his name shall be Ea!
    The binding of all my decrees shall he control,
    All my commands shall he make known! "
    By the name of "Fifty " did the great gods
    Proclaim his fifty names, they, made his path preeminent.

    EPILOGUE

    Let them [i.e. the names of Marduk] be held in remembrances and let the first man proclaim them;
    Let the wise and the understanding consider them together!
    Let the father repeat them and teach them to his son;
    Let them be in the ears of the pastor and the shepherd!
    Let a man rejoice in Marduk, the Lord of the gods,
    That be may cause his land to be fruitful, and that he himself may have prosperity!
    His word standeth fast, his command is unaltered;
    The utterance of his mouth hath no god ever annulled.
    He gazed in his anger, he turned not his neck;
    When he is wroth, no god can withstand his indignation.
    Wide is his heart, broad is his compassion;
    The sinner and evil-doer in his presence...
    They received instruction, they spake before him,
    ... unto...
    ... of Marduk may the gods...;
    ... May they ... his name... !
    ... they took and...
    ...................................!

    END OF THE CREATION EPIC
    THE FIGHT WITH TIAMAT

    (ANOTHER VERSION)
    [Note: Strictly speaking, the text is not a creation-legend, though it gives a variant form of the principal incident in the history of the creation according to the Enuma Elish. Here the fight with the dragon did not precede the creation of the world, but took place after men had been created and cities had been built.]

    The cities sighed, men ...
    Men uttered lamentation, they ...
    For their lamentation there was none to help,
    For their grief there was none to take them by the hand.
    · Who was the dragon... ?
    Tiamat was the dragon.....
    Bel in heaven hath formed.....
    Fifty kaspu [A kaspu is the space that can be covered in two hours travel, i.e. six or seven miles] in his length, one kaspu in his height,
    Six cubits is his mouth, twelve cubits his...,
    Twelve cubits is the circuit of his ears...;
    For the space of sixty cubits he ... a bird;
    In water nine cubits deep he draggeth...."
    He raiseth his tail on high...;
    All the gods of heaven...
    In heaven the gods bowed themselves down before the Moon-god...;
    The border of the Moon-god's robe they hastily grasped:
    "Who will go and slay the dragon,"
    And deliver the broad land from...
    And become king over... ?
    " Go, Tishu, slav the dragon,
    And deliver the broad land from...,
    And become king over...!"
    Thou hast sent me, O Lord, to... the raging creatures of the river,
    But I know not the... of the Dragon!

    [The rest of the Obverse and the upper part of the Reverse of the tablet are wanting.]

    REVERSE
    ................
    And opened his mouth and spake unto the god...
    " Stir up cloud, and storm and tempest!
    The seal of thy life shalt thou set before thy face,
    Thou shalt grasp it, and thou shalt slay the dragon."
    He stirred up cloud, and storm and tempest,
    He set the seal of his life before his face,
    He grasped it, and he slew the dragon.
    For three years and three months, one day and one night
    The blood of the dragon flowed. ...

    Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for I have a sonic screwdriver, a tricorder, and a Type 2 phaser.
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #99 - April 26, 2017, 03:28 PM

            Vedanta implies the highest knowledge, knowing which all other differences disappear, and there is nothing further to be known. Defining and describing the nature of the Self and of the Supreme Brahman is the aim of the Upanishads. When we try to understand many things, especially in the empirical world, we have the attitude, “let me become a knower.”
              This exercise comprises three entities: the knower, the object to be known and the act of knowing. For instance, when physics or chemistry is understood, the human being is the knower and these become the object of knowledge. But when one tries to understand the Self, the three entities merge since one enters the realm of the esoteric, said Sri Mani Dravid Sastrigal in a lecture.
              The Upanishads contain Mahavakyas — pithy statements that encapsulate the highest knowledge, while also life here and hereafter is described. The path to liberation through Jnana is also emphasised. But there is the possibility of losing track of the spirit of quest which the Upanishads symbolise when one wades through the maze of theories and interpretations.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=muRi5QlVmLg

          The unstated and implied meanings have to be explored and one has to arrive at a correct understanding. In the Aitareya Upanishad is found the axiom Prajnanam Brahma. The meaning is that the eternal and universal consciousness is the Supreme Being which gives existence to the entire universe. The philosophical teaching in this Upanishad helps a spiritual aspirant to gain the true knowledge of the Self.
          The infinite variety in creation with manifold names, forms, tendencies, etc., would have remained mere toys had not the Self entered to activate each being. The body/mind/complex which functions in human beings is possible because of the indwelling Atma.


    The Self (Atma) gives life to the body and remains imperishable. One has to identify with the immortal Atma and not the body that is subject to growth, change, decay and death.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WcrZr6aNHfw
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O1B0lDS1Jnw

    ur beliefs determine our thoughts and attitudes about life, which in turn direct our actions. By our actions, we create our destiny. Beliefs about sacred matters--God, soul and cosmos--are essential to one's approach to life. Hindus believe many diverse things, but there are a few bedrock concepts on which most Hindus concur. The following nine beliefs, though not exhaustive, offer a simple summary of Hindu spirituality.


    Hindus believe in a one, all-pervasive Supreme Being who is both immanent and transcendent, both Creator and Unmanifest Reality.
    Hindus believe in the divinity of the four Vedas, the world's most ancient scripture, and venerate the Agamas as equally revealed. These primordial hymns are God's word and the bedrock of Sanatana Dharma, the eternal religion.
    Hindus believe that the universe undergoes endless cycles of creation, preservation and dissolution.
    Hindus believe in karma, the law of cause and effect by which each individual creates his own destiny by his thoughts, words and deeds.
    Hindus believe that the soul reincarnates, evolving through many births until all karmas have been resolved, and moksha, liberation from the cycle of rebirth, is attained. Not a single soul will be deprived of this destiny.
    Hindus believe that divine beings exist in unseen worlds and that temple worship, rituals, sacraments and personal devotionals create a communion with these devas and Gods.
    Hindus believe that an enlightened master, or satguru, is essential to know the Transcendent Absolute, as are personal discipline, good conduct, purification, pilgrimage, self-inquiry, meditation and surrender in God.
    Hindus believe that all life is sacred, to be loved and revered, and therefore practice ahimsa, noninjury, in thought, word and deed.
    Hindus believe that no religion teaches the only way to salvation above all others, but that all genuine paths are facets of God's Light, deserving tolerance and understanding.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rv_dEgFdjoM

    Hinduism, the world's oldest religion, has no beginning--it precedes recorded history. It has no human founder. It is a mystical religion, leading the devotee to personally experience the Truth within, finally reaching the pinnacle of consciousness where man and God are one. Hinduism has four main denominations--Saivism, Shaktism, Vaishnavism and Smartism

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yneyNx-SRzg

    Most traditions within Hinduism share certain distinctive, core beliefs despite the absence of an identifiable beginning in history, single founder, central religious establishment, or sole authoritative scripture. Two of these core beliefs are that of the oneness of existence and pluralism.

    All beings, from the smallest organism to man, are considered manifestations of the Divine or reflections of the Divine’s qualities, depending upon the school of thought. Because of this shared divinity, Hinduism views the universe as a family or, in Sanskrit, Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam. Hinduism also advances the concept of the equality of all mankind, as expressed in the ancient hymn:

    Ajyesthaso akanishthaso ete sambhrataro vahaduhu saubhagaya
    No one is superior, none inferior. All are brothers marching forward to prosperity.

    Mankind, in turn, carries a special responsibility to honor the underlying equality of people and unity of existence because it is believed to be the most spiritually evolved. The popularly recited Hindu invocation demonstrates this concern for universal kinship and well-being:

    Om sarve bhavantu sukhinah. Sarve santu niraamayaah.
    Sarve bhadraani pashyantu. Maa kaschid dukhbhaag bhavet.

    May all beings be happy. May all beings be healthy.
    May all beings experience prosperity. May none in the world suffer.

    Most traditions within Hinduism share certain distinctive, core beliefs despite the absence of an identifiable beginning in history, single founder, central religious establishment, or sole authoritative scripture. Two of these core beliefs are that of the oneness of existence and pluralism.

    All beings, from the smallest organism to man, are considered manifestations of the Divine or reflections of the Divine’s qualities, depending upon the school of thought. Because of this shared divinity, Hinduism views the universe as a family or, in Sanskrit, Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam. Hinduism also advances the concept of the equality of all mankind, as expressed in the ancient hymn:

    Ajyesthaso akanishthaso ete sambhrataro vahaduhu saubhagaya
    No one is superior, none inferior. All are brothers marching forward to prosperity.

    Mankind, in turn, carries a special responsibility to honor the underlying equality of people and unity of existence because it is believed to be the most spiritually evolved. The popularly recited Hindu invocation demonstrates this concern for universal kinship and well-being:

    Om sarve bhavantu sukhinah. Sarve santu niraamayaah.
    Sarve bhadraani pashyantu. Maa kaschid dukhbhaag bhavet.

    May all beings be happy. May all beings be healthy.
    May all beings experience prosperity. May none in the world suffer.

    Most traditions within Hinduism share certain distinctive, core beliefs despite the absence of an identifiable beginning in history, single founder, central religious establishment, or sole authoritative scripture. Two of these core beliefs are that of the oneness of existence and pluralism.

    All beings, from the smallest organism to man, are considered manifestations of the Divine or reflections of the Divine’s qualities, depending upon the school of thought. Because of this shared divinity, Hinduism views the universe as a family or, in Sanskrit, Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam. Hinduism also advances the concept of the equality of all mankind, as expressed in the ancient hymn:

    Ajyesthaso akanishthaso ete sambhrataro vahaduhu saubhagaya
    No one is superior, none inferior. All are brothers marching forward to prosperity.

    Mankind, in turn, carries a special responsibility to honor the underlying equality of people and unity of existence because it is believed to be the most spiritually evolved. The popularly recited Hindu invocation demonstrates this concern for universal kinship and well-being:

    Om sarve bhavantu sukhinah. Sarve santu niraamayaah.
    Sarve bhadraani pashyantu. Maa kaschid dukhbhaag bhavet.

    May all beings be happy. May all beings be healthy.
    May all beings experience prosperity. May none in the world suffer.

    Most traditions within Hinduism share certain distinctive, core beliefs despite the absence of an identifiable beginning in history, single founder, central religious establishment, or sole authoritative scripture. Two of these core beliefs are that of the oneness of existence and pluralism.

    All beings, from the smallest organism to man, are considered manifestations of the Divine or reflections of the Divine’s qualities, depending upon the school of thought. Because of this shared divinity, Hinduism views the universe as a family or, in Sanskrit, Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam. Hinduism also advances the concept of the equality of all mankind, as expressed in the ancient hymn:

    Ajyesthaso akanishthaso ete sambhrataro vahaduhu saubhagaya
    No one is superior, none inferior. All are brothers marching forward to prosperity.

    Mankind, in turn, carries a special responsibility to honor the underlying equality of people and unity of existence because it is believed to be the most spiritually evolved. The popularly recited Hindu invocation demonstrates this concern for universal kinship and well-being:

    Om sarve bhavantu sukhinah. Sarve santu niraamayaah.
    Sarve bhadraani pashyantu. Maa kaschid dukhbhaag bhavet.

    May all beings be happy. May all beings be healthy.
    May all beings experience prosperity. May none in the world suffer.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bGwYDKxb76w

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5TSzWavnOcI

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W5gcAuzNQEI

    Against the backdrop of this understanding of equality and unity, the Hindu world has been able to embrace the reality of diversity through its philosophy of pluralism. Every being, with their varying likes and dislikes, their unique personalities, and their different cultures, not only connect with one another in their own unique ways, but connect with the Divine in their own individual ways.

    As such, Hindus believe that the Divine:

    Manifests in different forms
    Can be worshipped by various means
    Speaks to each individual in different ways to enable them to not only believe in God, but know God
    This embrace of pluralism has contributed to the incredible spiritual and religious freedom one witnesses within Hinduism -- in its many deity traditions, paths or yogas, schools of thoughts, saint traditions, ways of worship, etc.

    The worldview of pluralism is not just applicable to Hindus, but to all members of this universal family. Accordingly, Hinduism acknowledges not just the possibility, but also the existence of more than one path (religion) or way of relating to Truth (God). This true, unadulterated pluralism is captured in the ancient Sanskrit hymn:

    Ekam sat vipraha bahudha vadanti
    Truth is one, the wise call it by many names.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O0vnEruiMo4

    Six Major Schools of Thought in Hinduism

    Over the ages, various schools of theology developed in Hinduism through a dynamic tradition of philosophical inquiry and debate. From timeless and universal questions such as the purpose of life to the relationship between humans and the Divine emerged many schools of thoughts or darshanas. Darshana literally means "seeing" and relates to the different ways of "seeing" the Divine and attaining moksha or liberation from the cycle of birth and rebirth. Six darshanas are recognized as the most influential:

    Vaisheshika
    Nyaya
    Sankhya
    Mimamsa or Purva Mimamsa
    Yoga
    Vedanta, including Advaita, Dvaita, and Vishishtadvaita

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vpi6maDZoLo

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B4d8jUVROAs

    Key Hindu Scriptures

    Hinduism is rich in scripture and includes an extensive collection of ancient religious writings. These sacred texts are classified broadly into two categories: Shruti and Smriti. The word Shruti literally means “heard” and consists of what Hindus believe to be eternal truths akin to natural law. These texts are revered as “revealed” or divine in origin and are believed to contain the foundational truths of Hinduism.

    The second category of scripture is Smriti, which literally means “memory,” and is distinguished from Shruti in terms of its origin. Teachings in Smriti texts are meant to be remind adherents the eternal truths of Shruti, and read and interpreted in light of changing circumstances over kala (time), desha (land), and guna (personality).

    Some of the most well known texts include:

    Shruti

    ► Vedas: The word Veda means “knowledge”. There are four Vedas: Rig, Sama, Yajur and Atharva, of which the Rig Veda is the oldest.

    ► Upanishads: These texts, numbering over 100, contain an extensive exploration of the methods of understanding the self, God, and the nature of the world.

    Smriti

    ► Upavedas: The Upavedas consist of four main texts, including:

    Ayurveda - science of health and life
    Dhanurveda - science of warfare
    Gandharvaveda - the study of aesthetics, and delineates art forms
    Arthashastra - guidance on public administration, governance, economy, and politics
    ► Puranas: Stories in the Puranas translate the meanings of the ancient Shruti scriptures and teach them to the masses by explaining the teachings of the Vedas and Upanishads through stories and parables. There are 18 major Puranas (Mahapuranas) and many minor ones (upapuranas).

    ► Ramayana: This popular epic tells the life story the noble prince named Rama, whom Hindus believe to be an incarnation of the Divine. Prince Rama suffers year of exile and many hardships while destroying powerful demons before returning to rule his kingdom. There are numerous versions of the Ramayana, of which the most well-known are those by the original author Sage Valmiki and the poet-saint Tulsidas.

    ► Mahabharata: With over 100,000 verses, the Mahabharata is a historical epic, and is the longest poem the world has known. Based on an extended conflict between two branches of the Kaurava family, the Mahabharata is a trove of stories and discourses on the practice of Dharma, including the importance of truth, justice, self sacrifice, and the upholding of Dharma, the need for complete devotion to God, and the ultimate futility of war

    ► Bhagavad Gita: The Bhagavad Gita is a primary scripture for Hindus. Although it is a tiny part of the Mahabharata and technically classed as a Smriti text, it is traditionally accorded the rank of an Upanishad. It is meant to help one understand that upholding dharma can be challenging, especially in situations where there is not a clear right or wrong.

    ► Agama Shastras: Ancient and numerous, including many that have been lost over the centuries, these texts deal with practical aspects of devotion and worship, including personal and temple rituals and practices.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zz6qSDyxaGc

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FU0pFLwWXBw

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aGxPeJEp3sM

    induism as an Inspiration for Innovation and Discovery:
    Hindu Contributions from Antiquity

    Contrary to popular perceptions that Hinduism is a mystical religion exclusively concerned with transcendental concepts of spiritual practice, Hinduism has been a wellspring for vast contributions to global civilization spanning more than five millennia. As a religious practice aspiring to understand the eternal mysteries of existence, Hinduism has never been a regressive or closed dogma satisfied with historicentric interpretations of one holy book. Indeed, Hindus have explored the mysteries of science, mathematics and astronomy to revel in the glory of Creation. Epochal advances in metallurgy, medicine, grammar, music and dance, among other disciplines, came from early practitioners of Hinduism and its scripture is replete with practical and esoteric observations. Some perennial contributions of Hinduism:

    Education   The first university in Takshashila in 700 B.C.E.
    Mathematics   The concept of zero (200 A.D.). The modern numerical and decimal system (300 B.C.E). The value of pi (?) (497 A.D.). Area of a triangle (476 A.D.). Quadratic Equation (991 A.D.). Trigonometry.
    Astronomy   Concept of planets in the solar system circling the sun (500 A.D.). Earth as round, rotating on axis and gravity as a force of attraction by the earth (500 A.D.). Concept of Time as 365 days in a year.
    Metallurgy   Steel, iron, gold discovered in archaeological excavations dating to 3000 B.C.E.
    Medicine

    Ayur Veda, a system of allopathic and holistic medicine and now a subject of rediscovery, originated 1000 B.C.E. Detailed text called the Charaka Samhita includes anatomy, physiology and various treatments using various plants, fruits and herbs.
    Surgery   The Sushruta Samhita (600 B.C.E.) is considered the first detailed text with seminal descriptions of surgical procedures and instruments that, with modifications, are conceptually used today.
    Literature   Sanskrit developed as the most ancient systematic language in the world. The Ramayan (before 3000 B.C.E) and the 100,000 verses Mahabharata (300 B.C.E.) are venerable epics that continue to inspire Hindus today.
    Arts   Highly sophisticated Indian classical music finds its origins in the Sama Veda, one of the four original Vedas. The four classical dance forms of India find their origins and inspirations in Hindu religious tradition.
    Yoga and Meditation   These are, perhaps, the most widely-recognized spiritual contributions of Hinduism to humanity. Hatha Yoga, the widely practiced system of cleansing exercises, is only one of the Yoga disciplines that encourage spiritual, physical and intellectual advancement. Meditation, a process that calms and focuses the psyche, is integral to yogic practice and recognized with yoga for its salutary effects on personal well-being.
    As continuous invasions rocked the Indian subcontinent—from Alexander the Great and the heinous barbarisms of the Islamic conquests to the most recently repulsed British colonial rule—the last millennia saw the nadir of Hindu innovation. Yet the 20th and 21st century are marking a resurgence as Hindus in the diaspora, especially in the United States, strengthen their adopted lands with contributions in technology, medicine, engineering, fashion and the arts among many other disciplines.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M_Pk7mKEXtI

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vqeZMJyILCs

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qfD8ODrCuaA

    The Eternal Way
    Clearly for something to be eternal it must have always existed, and must continue to exist in the future. Any religion that has a founder cannot claim to have always existed. There was no Christianity before Jesus and no Islam before Muhammad. Sikhism did not exist before Guru Nanak, nor Confucianism before Confucius. Judaism is the religion of the people of Israel, which started with Abraham, the Father of Israel.

    Buddhism in the present era was formed by the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama, though I cannot be so quick to dismiss Buddhism as their writings claim that Gautama Buddha is only one of an infinite line of Buddhas. Other religions that can claim to have existed for ever are Taoism and various shamanistic beliefs, such as those of the Australian Aborigines and Native Americans.

    In addition to having always existed, to be eternal a religion must continue for ever. For religions which believe in some kind of final judgement (Christianity,  Islam, some lines of Judaism) it is questionable whether you could say that the religion would exist after this; at very least it would be changed. From the words of a Christian Hymn:

    Prophecy will fade away,
    Melting in the light of day;
    Love will ever with us stay;
    Therefore, give us love.

    Faith will vanish into sight;
    Hope be emptied in delight;
    Love in heaven will shine more bright;
    Therefore, give us love.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J97iNSFrKoI

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TwmqzqCEWkE

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YVGUz-hYRk8

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EKi6ETuOclA

    Similarly, for those that are not part of the religion, there is no hope or opportunity to practice the belief. For these we could say:

    Faith uselsss when God does not care,
    hope is emptied in despair.
    Love? Look not to God there is none there;
    indifferance above.

    By these beliefs, Gandhi is condemned to eternal punishment with no opportunity to change, whereas the Spanish inquisitors and  Mafioso godfathers enjoy their eternal reward for correct belief. Can they still claim to be a religion when faith or belief no longer matters for people in either group? Personaly I would say they cannot.

    This still leaves us with Buddhism, Confucianism and the Shamanistic beliefs as possible eternal ways.  Though I have demonstrated unequivocally that the other major religions cannot claim to be eternal, I am believe my arguments against these three beliefs is not as strong (and with good reason).

    One could argue that Confucianism and the Shamanistic religions are highly connected to the earth, and therefore will not survive the end of this earth. I am not entirely happy with this argument, as these religions are given as traditions of time and place. There is nothing in them to claim that they would not apply to other worlds and universes, and it would  in the context of their beliefs be unreasonable to expect them to mention the possibility.

    Buddhism inherits the view of a large, cyclic universe with many planets from Hinduism (an idea later shown to be scientifically correct). There is nothing in the belief itself that would make you question its continued existance.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OfhxEYb2XQk

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6DxNOBnCOFA

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sm-f_nIaj4Y

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XxMqjQNOudw

    How can we tell that these religions will actually last? Of course faith is one way to answer this, but for Hinduism there is also evidence. I have written previously about how Hindu-like revelations spring up in spiritual people from other traditions.

    In various previous posts I have described how Julian of Nowrich had revelations that God was everything, and that there is no such thing as evil. How the Cathars came to believe that people were holy and pure at heart, that everyone would be redeemed, that purity was the way to break our bonds to the physical world, and to believe in reincarnation. And how even from Islam the Sufi Mansur Al-Hallaj came to see that the true nature of the human soul is God.

    These examples, together with the ongoing teachings of many enlightened gurus within Hinduism show that for those who purify their mind and are receptive the revelations of Hinduism are still available. When working on this entry I read the same idea expressed clearly and concisely in the book “Am I a Hindu”, by Ed Viswanathan, also on his blog:

    Even if  some one kill every Hindu on earth and burn every book on Hinduism,  this “thought process” we call Hinduism, will come back to life again within few years, may be with a different name, since Hinduism, is the relentless search after truth.

    Now, I think this is where Hinduism can demonstrate above any other faith that it is the eternal religion, a constantly flowing revelation. In his book “How I became a Hindu”, David Frawley writes:

    Though the New Age movement has much fantasy, if not self-indulgence within it, as it matures it will probably come to resemble Hinduism…

    This is leads us on to why Hinduism is the true religion.

    The True Religion
    In the previous section, in order to show that Hinduism was the eternal way. I described how Hinduism is validated by a constant flow of revelation, even from people from other religious backgrounds. I could give a very robust argument against most major religions being the eternal way. I believe I gave a good argument regarding Buddhism, Taoism and Shamanic religions, but I would not give it the level of absolute unequivocal proof given to the other religions.

    The reason that I believe these religions are harder to discount as eternal is that they all have strong elements from Hinduism within them. In particular they believe in personal spiritual advance being more important than belief, and are universal – not claiming to be the whole or only way.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HQ6WO6tUDoM

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ak_7LGfJNs4

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aaSqhzTzros

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ACF1E2TG_b8

    Buddhism has inherited a lot from Hinduism, the main change being that it is primarily atheistic. Hinduism teaches us that God, the atman within us is the same as God without; “Aham Brahma Asmi“, or “I am Brahman”. Hindus can see Buddhism as avalid path, though mistaking God for Buddha Nature. The Buddhist parth is very like the path of Jnana Yoga.

    Shamanism and Taoism both reflect on the holiness of nature, the spiritual oneness of everything. I see shamainsm as perhaps an early stage of the Sanatana dharma evolving through revelation. Shamanism includes elements of Bhakti Yoga. Taoism expounds the three virtues of compassion, moderation and humility, which are also central to Hinduism. Taoism is very like the path of Hatha Yoga, using exercises to tune the body and the spirit.

    Other religions too have elements from Hinduism, Christianity and Islam mainly expound Bhakti Yoga and so on.  Hinduism is unique in having a broad teaching of techniques for spiritual advancement, and methods to decide which technique suits a person best. This is why I say Hinduism is the true religion. It is not the only path, but the purest and broadest revealed pathway to God. Hinduism is unique in being the only intact revelation from previous ages, which has not been altered and edited for political expedience.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Zot4YKaKO0

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qAWyESYvEGE

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ePD0AWxnYeg

    Then you have the wine that doesn't make you drunk. Seriously, who's idea was that? It's called Juicy Juice where I come from, mofo, you ain't fooling me.

  • Love and compassion
     Reply #100 - April 26, 2017, 06:01 PM

    thornsvald fills with some stories from India
    Vedanta implies ................  NOTHING
    The Upanishads contain ................NOTHING
    The Self (Atma) gives....................NOTHING 
    our beliefs determine .................,NOTHING   
    Hindus believe in ..................NOTHING 
    Hinduism, the world's oldest religion, has no beginning-
    .......................

    Everything comes out  of Nothing

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hBKwtvnfYZA

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #101 - April 26, 2017, 09:07 PM

    Part I

    [The Bardo of the Moments of Death]

    [Instructions on the Symptoms of Death, or the First Stage of the Chikhai Bardo: The Primary
    Clear Light Seen at the Moment of Death]


    The first, the setting-face-to-face with the Clear Light, during the Intermediate State of the Moments of
    Death, is:

    Here [some there may be] who have listened much [to religious instructions] yet not recognized; and
    [some] who, though recognizing, are, nevertheless, weak in familiarity. But all classes of individuals
    who have received the practical teachings [called] Guides will, if this be applied to them, be set face to
    face with the fundamental Clear Light; and, without any Intermediate State, they will obtain the
    Unborn Dharma-Kaya, by the Great Perpendicular Path.

    The manner of application is:

    It is best if the guru from whom the deceased received guiding instructions can be had; but if the guru
    cannot be obtained, then a brother of the Faith; or if the latter is also unobtainable, then a learned man
    of the same Faith; or, should all these be unobtainable, then a person who can read correctly and
    distinctly ought to read this many times over. Thereby [the deceased] will be put in mind of what he
    had [previously] heard of the setting-face-to-face and will at once come to recognize that Fundamental
    Light and undoubtedly obtain Liberation.

    As regards the time for the application [of these instructions]:

    When the expiration bath ceased, the vital-force will have sunk into the nerve-centre of Wisdom and
    the Knower will be experiencing the Clear Light of the natural condition. Then, the vital-force, being
    thrown backwards and flying downwards through the right and left nerves, the Intermediate State
    momentarily dawns.

    The above [directions] should be applied before [the vital-force hath] rushed into the left nerve [after
    first having traversed the navel nerve-centre].

    The time [ordinarily necessary for this motion of the vital-force] is as long as the inspiration is still
    present, or about the time required for eating a meal.

    Then the manner of the application [of the instructions] is:

    When the breathing is about to cease, it is best if the Transference hath been applied efficiently; if [the
    application] hath been inefficient, then [address the deceased] thus:

    O nobly-born (so and so by name), the time hath now come for thee to seek the Path [in reality]. Thy
    breathing is about to cease. Thy guru hath set thee face to face before with the Clear Light; and now
    thou art about to experience it in its Reality in the Bardo state, wherein all things are like the void and
    cloudless sky, and the naked, spotless intellect is like unto a transparent vacuum without circumference
    or centre. At this moment, know thou thyself; and abide in that state. I, too, at this time, am setting thee
    face to face.

    Having read this, repeat it many times in the ear of the person dying, even before the expiration hath
    ceased, so as to impress it on the mind [of the dying one].

    If the expiration is about to cease, turn the dying one over on the right side, which posture is called the
    'Lying Posture of a Lion'. The throbbing of the arteries [on the right and left side of the throat] is to be
    pressed.

    If the person dying be disposed to sleep, or if the sleeping state advances, that should be arrested, and
    the arteries pressed gently but firmly. Thereby the vital-force will not be able to return from the
    median-nerve and will be sure to pass out through the Brahmanic aperture. Now the real setting-face-
    to-face is to be applied.

    At this moment, the first [glimpsing] of the Bardo of the Clear Light of Reality, which is the Infallible
    Mind of the Dharma-Kdya, is experienced by all sentient beings.

    The interval between the cessation of the expiration and the cessation of the inspiration is the time
    during which the vital-force remaineth in the median-nerve.

    The common people call this the state wherein the consciousness-principle hath fainted away. The
    duration of this state is uncertain. [It dependeth] upon the constitution, good or bad, and [the state of]
    the nerves and vital-force. In those who have had even a little practical experience of the firm, tranquil
    state of dhydna, and in those who have sound nerves, this state continueth for a long time.

    In the setting-face-to-face, the repetition [of the above address to the deceased] is to be persisted in
    until a yellowish liquid beginneth to appear from the various apertures of the bodily organs [of the
    deceased].

    In those who have led an evil life, and in those of unsound nerves, the above state endureth only so
    long as would take to snap a finger. Again, in some, it endureth as long as the time taken for the eating
    of a meal.

    In various Tantras it is said that this state of swoon endureth for about three and one -half days. Most
    other [religious treatises] say for four days; and that this setting-face-to-face with the Clear Light ought
    to be persevered in [during the whole time].

    The manner of applying [these directions] is:

    If [when dying] one be by one's own self capable [of diagnosing the symptoms of death], use [of the
    knowledge] should have been made ere this. If [the dying person be] unable to do so, then either the
    guru, or a shishya, or a brother in the Faith with whom the one [dying] was very intimate, should be
    kept at hand, who will vividly impress upon the one [dying] the symptoms [of death] as they appear in
    due order [repeatedly saying, at first] thus:

    Now the symptoms of earth sinking into water are come.

    When all the symptoms [of death] are about to be completed, then enjoin upon [the one dying] this
    resolution, speaking in a low tone of voice in the ear:

    O nobly-born (or, if it be a priest, O Venerable Sir), let not thy mind be distracted.

    If it be a brother [in the Faith], or some other person, then call him by name, and [say] thus:

    O nobly-born, that which is called death being come to thee now, resolve thus: 'O this now is the hour
    of death. By taking advantage of this death, I will so act, for the good of all sentient beings, peopling
    the illimitable expanse of the heavens, as to obtain the Perfect Buddhahood, by resolving on love and
    compassion towards [them, and by directing my entire effort to] the Sole Perfection.'


    Shaping the thoughts thus, especially at this time when the Dharma-Kaya of Clear Light [in the state]
    after death can be realized for the benefit of all sentient beings, know that thou art in that state; [and
    resolve] that thou wilt obtain the best boon of the State of the Great Symbol, in which thou art, [as
    follows]:

    'Even if I cannot realize it, yet will I know this Bardo, and, mastering the Great Body of Union in
    Bardo, will appear in whatever [shape] will benefit [all beings] whomsoever: I will serve all sentient
    beings, infinite in number as are the limits of the sky.'

    Keeping thyself unseparated from this resolution, thou shouldst try to remember whatever devotional
    practices thou went accustomed to perform during thy lifetime.


    In saying this, the reader shall put his lips close to the ear, and shall repeat it distinctly, clearly
    impressing it upon the dying person so as to prevent his mind from wandering even for a moment.

    After the expiration hath completely ceased, press the nerve of sleep firmly; and, a lama, or a person
    higher or more learned than thyself, impress in these words, thus:

    Reverend Sir, now that thou art experiencing the Fundamental Clear Light, try to abide in that state
    which now thou art experiencing.


    And also in the case of any other person the reader shall set him face-to-face thus:

    O nobly-born (so-and-so), listen. Now thou art experiencing the Radiance of the Clear Light of Pure
    Reality. Recognize it. O nobly-born, thy present intellect, in real nature void, not formed into anything
    as regards characteristics or colour, naturally void, is the very Reality, the All-Good.

    Thine own intellect, which is now voidness, yet not to be regarded as of the voidness of nothingness,
    but as being the intellect itself, unobstructed, shining, thrilling, and blissful, is the very consciousness,
    the All-good Buddha.

    Thine own consciousness, not formed into anything, in reality void, and the intellect, shining and
    blissful, — these two, — are inseparable. The union of them is the Dharma-Kaya state of Perfect
    Enlightenment.

    Thine own consciousness, shining, void, and inseparable from the Great Body of Radiance, hath no
    birth, nor death, and is the Immutable Light — Buddha Amitabha.

    Knowing this is sufficient. Recognizing the voidness of thine own intellect to be Buddhahood, and
    looking upon it as being thine own consciousness, is to keep thyself in the [state of the] divine mind of
    the Buddha.


    Repeat this distinctly and clearly three or [even] seven times. That will recall to the mind [of the dying
    one] the former [i.e. when living] setting-face-to-face by the guru. Secondly, it will cause the naked
    consciousness to be recognized as the Clear Light; and, thirdly, recognizing one's own self [thus], one
    becometh permanently united with the Dharma-Kaya and Liberation will be certain.


    [Instructions Concerning the Second Stage of the Chikhai Bardo: The Secondary Clear Light
    Seen Immediately After Death]


    Thus the primary Clear Light is recognized and Liberation attained. But if it be feared that the primary
    Clear Light hath not been recognized, then [it can certainly be assumed] there is dawning [upon the
    deceased] that called the secondary Clear Light, which dawneth in somewhat more than a meal-time
    period after that the expiration hath ceased.

    According to one's good or bad karma, the vital-force floweth down into either the right or left nerve
    and goeth out through any of the apertures [of the body]. Then cometh a lucid condition of the mind.

    To say that the state [of the primary Clear Light] endureth for a meal-time period [would depend upon]
    the good or bad condition of the nerves and also whether there hath been previous practice or not [in
    the setting-face-to-face].

    When the consciousness-principle getteth outside [the body, it sayeth to itself], Am I dead, or am I not
    dead ?' It cannot determine. It seeth its relatives and connexions as it had been used to seeing them
    before. It even heareth the wailings. The terrifying karmic illusions have not yet dawned. Nor have the
    frightful apparitions or experiences caused by the Lords of Death yet come.

    During this interval, the directions are to be applied [by the lama or reader]:

    There are those [devotees] of the perfected stage and of the visualizing stage. If it be one who was in
    the perfected stage, then call him thrice by name and repeat over and over again the above instructions
    of setting-face-to-face with the Clear Light. If it be one who was in the visualizing stage, then read out
    to him the introductory descriptions and the text of the Meditation on his tutelary deity, and then say,

    O thou of noble-birth, meditate upon thine own tutelary deity. — [Here the deity's name is to be
    mentioned by the reader.] Do not be distracted. Earnestly concentrate thy mind upon thy tutelary deity.
    Meditate upon him as if he were the reflection of the moon in water, apparent yet in-existent [in itself].
    Meditate upon him as if he were a being with a physical body.

    So saying, [the reader will] impress it.

    If [the deceased be] of the common folk, say,

    Meditate upon the Great Compassionate Lord.

    By thus being set-face-to-face even those who would not be expected to recognize the Bardo [unaided]
    are undoubtedly certain to recognize it.

    Persons who while living had been set face to face [with the Reality] by a guru, yet who have not made
    themselves familiar with it, will not be able to recognize the Bardo clearly by themselves. Either a
    guru or a brother in the Faith will have to impress vividly such persons.

    There may be even those who have made themselves familiar with the teachings, yet who, because of
    the violence of the disease causing death, may be mentally unable to withstand illusions. For such,
    also, this instruction is absolutely necessary.

    Again [there are those] who, although previously familiar with the teachings, have become liable to
    pass into the miserable states of existence, owing to breach of vows or failure to perform essential
    obligations honestly. To them, this [instruction] is indispensable.

    If the first stage of the Bardo path been taken by the forelock, that is best. But if not, by application of
    this distinct recalling [to the deceased], while in the second stage of the Bardo, his intellect is
    awakened and attaineth liberation.

    While on the second stage of the Bardo, one's body is of the nature of that called the shining illusory-
    body.

    Not knowing whether [he be] dead or not, [a state of] lucidity cometh [to the deceased. If the
    instructions be successfully applied to the deceased while he is in that state, then, by the meeting of the
    Mother-Reality and the Offspring-Reality, karma controlleth not. Like the sun's rays, for example,
    dispelling the darkness, the Clear Light on the Path dispelleth the power of karma.

    That which is called the second stage of the Bardo dawneth upon the thought-body. The Knower'
    hovereth within those places to which its activities had been limited. If at this time this special teaching
    be applied efficiently, then the purpose will be fulfilled; for the karmic illusions will not have come
    yet, and, therefore, he [the deceased] cannot be turned hither and thither [from his aim of achieving
    Enlightenment].


    [The Bardo of the Experiencing of Reality]


    [Introductory Instructions Concerning the Experiencing of Reality During the Third Stage of the
    Bardo, Called the Chonyid Bardo, when the Karmic Apparitions Appear]


    But even though the Primary Clear Light be not recognized, the Clear Light of the second Bardo being
    recognized, Liberation will be attained. If not liberated even by that, then that called the third Bardo or
    the Chonyid Bardo dawneth.

    In this third stage of the Bardo, the karmic illusions come to shine. It is very important that this Great
    Setting-face-to-face of the Chonyid Bardo be read: it hath much power and can do much good.

    About this time [the deceased] can see that the share of food is being set aside, that the body is being
    stripped of its garments, that the place of the sleeping-rug is being swept; can hear all the weeping and
    wailing of his friends and relatives, and, although he can see them and can hear them calling upon him,
    they cannot hear him calling upon them, so he goeth away displeased.

    At that time, sounds, lights, and rays — all three — are experienced. These awe, frighten, and terrify,
    and cause much fatigue. At this moment, this setting-face-to-face with the Bardo [during the
    experiencing] of Reality is to be applied. Call the deceased by name, and correctly and distinctly
    explain to him, as follows:

    O nobly-born, listen with full attention, without being distracted: There are six states of Bardo,
    namely: the natural state of Bardo while in the womb; the Bardo of the dream-state; the Bardo of
    ecstatic equilibrium, while in deep meditation; the Bardo of the moment of death; the Bardo [during
    the experiencing] of Reality; the Bardo of the inverse process of sangsaric existence. These are the six.

    O nobly-born, thou wilt experience three Bardos, the Bardo of the moment of death, the Bardo [during
    the experiencing] of Reality, and the Bardo while seeking rebirth. Of these three, up to yesterday, thou
    hadst experienced the Bardo of the moment of death. Although the Clear Light of Reality dawned
    upon thee, thou wert unable to hold on, and so thou hast to wander here. Now henceforth thou art
    going to experience the [other] two, the Chonyid Bardo and the Sidpa Bardo.

    Thou wilt pay undistracted attention to that with which I am about to set thee face to face, and hold on:

    O nobly-born, that which is called death hath now come. Thou art departing from this world, but thou
    art not the only one; [death] cometh to all. Do not cling, in fondness and weakness, to this life. Even
    though thou clingest out of weakness, thou hast not the power to remain here. Thou wilt gain nothing
    more than wandering in this Sangsara. Be not attached [to this world]; be not weak. Remember the
    Precious Trinity.

    O nobly-born, whatever fear and terror may come to thee in the Chonyid Bardo, forget not these
    words; and, bearing their meaning at heart, go forwards: in them lieth the vital secret of recognition.

    'Alas! when the Uncertain Experiencing of Reality is dawning upon me here,

    With every thought of fear or terror or awe for all [apparitional appearances] set aside,

    May I recognize whatever [visions] appear, as the reflections of mine own consciousness;

    May I know them to be of the nature of apparitions in the Bardo:

    When at this all-important moment [of opportunity] of achieving a great end,

    May I not fear the bands of Peaceful and Wrathful [Deities], mine own thought-forms.'


    Repeat thou these [verses] clearly, and remembering their significance as thou repeatest them, go
    forwards, [O nobly-born]. Thereby, whatever visions of awe or terror appear, recognition is certain;
    and forget not this vital secret art lying therein.

    O nobly-born, when thy body and mind were separating, thou must have experienced a glimpse of the
    Pure Truth, subtle, sparkling, bright, dazzling, glorious, and radiantly awesome, in appearance like a
    mirage moving across a landscape in spring-time in one continuous stream of vibrations. Be not
    daunted thereby, nor terrified, nor awed. That is the radiance of thine own true nature.
    Recognize it.

    From the midst of that radiance, the natural sound of Reality, reverberating like a thousand thunders
    simultaneously sounding, will come. That is the natural sound of thine own real self. Be not daunted
    thereby, nor terrified, nor awed.

    The body which thou hast now is called the thought-body of propensities. Since thou hast not a
    material body of flesh and blood, whatever may come — sounds, lights, or rays — are, all three, unable
    to harm thee: thou art incapable of dying. It is quite sufficient for thee to know that these apparitions
    are thine own thought-forms. Recognize this to be the Bardo.

    O nobly-born, if thou dost not now recognize thine own thought-forms, whatever of meditation or of
    devotions thou mayst have performed while in the human world — if thou hast not met with this
    present teaching — the lights will daunt thee, the sounds will awe thee, and the rays will terrify thee.
    Shouldst thou not know this all-important key to the teachings — not being able to recognize the
    sounds, lights, and rays — thou wilt have to wander in the Sangsara.



    [The Dawning of the Peaceful Deities, from the First to the Seventh Day]

    [Assuming that the deceased is karmically bound — as the average departed one is — to pass through
    the forty-nine days of the Bardo existence, despite the very frequent settings-face-to-face, the daily
    trials and dangers which he must meet and attempt to triumph over, during the first seven days,
    wherein dawn the Peaceful Deities, are next explained to him in detail; the first day, judging from the
    text, being reckoned from the time in which normally he would be expected to wake up to the fact that
    he is dead and on the way back to rebirth, or about three and one-half to four days after death.]


    [The First Day]

    O nobly-born, thou hast been in a swoon during the last three and one-half days. As soon as thou art
    recovered from this swoon, thou wilt have the thought, 'what hath happened!'

    Act so that thou wilt recognize the Bar do. At that time, all the Sangsdra will be in revolution; and the
    phenomenal appearances that thou wilt see then will be the radiances and deities. The whole heaves
    will appear deep blue.

    Then, from the Central Realm, called the Spreading Forth of the Seed, the Bhagavan Vairochana,
    white in colour, and seated upon a lion-throne, bearing an eight-spoked wheel in his hand, and
    embraced by the Mother of the Space of Heaven, will manifest himself to thee.

    It is the aggregate of matter resolved into its primordial state which is the blue light.

    The Wisdom of the Dharma-Dhdtu, blue in colour, shining, transparent, glorious, dazzling, from the
    heart of Vairochana as the Father-Mother, will shoot forth and strike against thee with a light so radiant
    that thou wilt scarcely be able to look at it.

    Along with it, there will also shine a dull white light from the devas, which will strike against thee in
    thy front.

    Thereupon, because of the power of bad karma, the glorious blue light of the Wisdom of the Dharma-
    Dhdtu will produce in thee fear and terror, and thou wilt [with to] flee from it. Thou wilt beget a
    fondness for the dull white light of the devas.

    At this stage, thou must not be awed by the divine blue light which will appear shining, dazzling, and
    glorious; and be not startled by it. That is the light of the Tathagata called the Light of the Wisdom of
    the Dharma-Dhdtu. Put thy faith in it, believe in it firmly, and pray unto it, thinking in thy mind that it
    is the light proceeding from the heart of the Bhagavan Vairochana coming to receive thee while in the
    dangerous ambuscade of the Bardo. That light is the light of the grace of Vairochana.

    Be not fond of the dull white light of the devas. Be not attached [to it]; be not weak. If thou be attached
    to it, thou wilt wander into the abodes of the devas and be drawn into the whirl of the Six Lokas. That
    is an interruption to obstruct thee on the Path of Liberation. Look not at it. Look at the bright blue light
    in deep faith. Put thy whole thought earnestly upon Vairochana and repeat after me this prayer:

    Alas! when wandering in the Sangsdra, because of intense stupidity,
    On the radiant light-path of the Dharma-Dhdtu Wisdom

    May I be led by the Bhagavan Vairochana,
    May the Divine Mother of Infinite Space by [my] rearguard;
    May I be led safely across the fearful ambush of the Bardo;
    May I be placed in the state of the All-Perfect Buddhahood.'


    Praying thus, in intense humble faith, [thou] wilt merge, in halo of rainbow light, into the heart of
    Vairochana, and obtain Buddhahood in the Sambhoga-Kdya, in the Central Realm of the Densely-
    Packed.

    [The Second Day]

    But if, notwithstanding this setting-face-to-face, through power of anger or obscuring karma one
    should be startled at the glorious light and flee, or be overcome by illusions, despite the prayer, on the
    Second Day, Vajra-Sattva and his attendant deities, as well as one's evil deeds [meriting] Hell, will
    come to receive one.

    Thereupon the setting-face-to-face is, calling the deceased by name, thus:

    O nobly-born, listen undistractedly. On the Second Day the pure form of water will shine as a white
    light. At that time, from the deep blue Eastern Realm of Pre-eminent Happiness, the Bhagavan
    Akshobhya [as] Vajra-Sattva, blue in colour, holding in his hand a five-pronged dorje, seated upon an
    elephant-throne, and embraced by the Mother MamakI, will appear to thee, attended by the
    Bodhisattvas Kshitigarbha and Maitreya, with the female Bodhisattvas, Lasema and Pushpema. These
    six Bodhic deities will appear to thee.

    The aggregate of thy principle of consciousness, being in it's pure form — which is the Mirror-like
    Wisdom — will shine as a bright, radiant white light, from the heart of Vajra-Sattva, the Father-Mother,
    with such dazzling brilliancy and transparency that thou wilt scarcely be able to look at it, [and] will
    strike against thee. And a dull, smoke-coloured light from Hell will shine alongside the light of the
    Mirror-like Wisdom and will [also] strike against thee.

    Thereupon, through the power of anger, thou wilt beget fear and be startled at the dazzling white light
    and wilt [wish to] flee from it; thou wilt beget a feeling of fondness for the dull smoke-coloured light
    from Hell. Act then so that thou wilt not fear that bright, dazzling, transparent white light. Know it to
    be Wisdom. Put thy humble and earnest faith in it. That is the light of the grace of the Bhagavan Vajra-
    Sattva. Think, with faith, 'I will take refuge in it'; and pray.

    That is the Bhagavan Vajra-Sattva coming to receive thee and to save thee from the fear and terror of
    the Bardo. Believe in it; for it is the hook of the rays of grace of Vajra-Sattva.

    Be not fond of the dull, smoke-coloured light from Hell. That is the path which openeth out to receive
    thee because of the power of accumulated evil karma from violent anger. If thou be attracted by it,
    thou wilt fall into the Hell-Worlds; and, falling therein, thou wilt have to endure unbearable misery,
    whence there is not certain time of getting out. That being an interruption to obstruct thee on the Path
    of Liberation, look not at it; and avoid anger. Be not attracted by it; be not weak. Believe in the
    dazzling bright white light; [and] putting thy whole heart earnestly upon the Bhagavan Vajra-Sattva,
    pray thus:

    Alas! when wandering in the Sangsara because of the power of violent anger,

    On the radiant light-path of the Mirror-like Wisdom,

    May I be led by the Bhagavan Vajra-Sattva,

    May the Divine Mother MamakI be [my] rear-guard;

    May I be led safely across the fearful ambush of the Bardo;

    And may I be placed in the state of the All-perfect Buddhahood.'


    Praying thus, in intense humble faith, thou wilt merge, in rainbow light, into the heart of the Bhagavan
    Vajra-Sattva and obtain Buddhahood in the Sambhoga-Kaya, in the Eastern Realm called Pre-
    eminently Happy.


    [The Third Day]


    Yet, even when set face to face in this way, some persons, because of obscurations from bad karma,
    and from pride, although the hook of the rays of grace [striketh against them], flee from it. [If one be
    one of them], then, on the Third Day, the Bhagavan Ratna-Sambhava and his accompanying deities,
    along with the light-path from the human world, will come to receive one simultaneously.

    Again, calling the deceased by name, the setting-face-to-face is thus:

    O nobly-born, listen undistractedly. On the Third Day the primal form of the element earth will shine
    forth as a yellow light. At that time, from the Southern Realm Endowed with Glory, the Bhagavan
    Ratna-Sambhava, yellow in colour bearing a jewel in his hand, seated upon a horse-throne and
    embraced by the Divine Mother Sangyay-Chanma, will shine upon thee.

    The two Bodhisattvas, Akasha-Barbha and Samanta-Bhadra, attended by the two female Bodhisattvas,
    Mahlaima and Dhupema — in all, six Bodhic forms — will come to shine from amidst a rainbow halo of
    light. The aggregate of touch in its primal form, as the yellow light of the Wisdom of Equality,
    dazzlingly yellow, glorified with orbs having satellite orbs of radiance, so clear and bright that the eye
    can scarcely look upon it, will strike against thee. Side by side with it, the dull bluish-yellow light from
    the human [world] will also strike against thy heart, along with the Wisdom light.

    Thereupon, through the power of egotism, thou wilt beget a fear for the dazzling yellow light and wilt
    [with to] flee from it. Thou wilt be fondly attracted towards the dull bluish-yellow light from the
    human [world].

    At that time do not fear that bright, dazzling-yellow, transparent light, but know it to be Wisdom; in
    that state, keeping thy mind resigned, trust in it earnestly and humbly. If thou knowest it to be the
    radiance of thine own intellect — although thou exertest not thy humility and faith and prayer to it —
    the Divine Body and Light will merge into thee inseparably, and thou wilt obtain Buddhahood.

    If thou dost not recognize the radiance of thine own intellect, think, with faith, 'It is the radiance of the
    grace of the Bhagavan Ratna-Sambhava; I will take refuge in it'; and pray. It is the hook of the grace-
    rays of the Bhagavan Ratna-Sambhava; believe in it.

    Be not fond of that dull bluish-yellow light from the human [world]. That is the path of thine
    accumulated propensities of violent egotism come to receive thee. If thou art attracted by it, thou wilt
    be born in the human world and have to suffer birth, age, sickness, and death; and thou wilt have no
    chance of getting out of the quagmire of worldly existence. That is an interruption to obstruct thy path
    of liberation. Therefore, look not upon it, and abandon egotism, abandon propensities; be not attracted
    towards it; be not weak. Act so as to trust in that bright dazzling light. Put thine earnest thought, one-
    pointedly, upon the Bhagavan Ratna-Sambhava; and pray thus:

    Alas! when wandering in the Sangsara because of the power of violent egotism,

    on the radiant light-path of the Wisdom of Equality,

    May I be led by the Bhagavan Ratna-Sambhava;

    May the Divine Mother, She-of-the-Buddha-Eye, be [my] rear-guard;

    May I be led safely across the fearful ambush of the Bardo;

    And may I be placed in the state of the All-Perfect Buddhahood.'


    By praying thus, with deep humility and faith, thou wilt merge into the heart of the Bhagavan Ratna-
    Sambhava, the Divine Father-Mother, in halo of rainbow light, and attain Buddhahood in the
    Sambhoga-Kaya, in the Southern Realm Endowed with Glory.

    [The Fourth Day]

    By thus being set face to face, however weak the mental faculties may be, there is no doubt of one's
    gaining Liberation. Yet, though so often set face to face, there are classes of men who, having created
    much bad karma, or having failed in observance of vows, or, their lot [for higher development] being
    altogether lacking, prove unable to recognize: their obscurations and evil karma from covetousness and
    miserliness produce awe of the sounds and radiances, and they flee. [If one be of these classes], then,
    on the Fourth Day, the Bhagavan Amitabha and his attendant deities, together with the light-path from
    the Preta-loka, proceeding from miserliness and attachment, will come to receive one simultaneously.

    Again, the setting-face-to-face is, calling the deceased by name, thus:

    O nobly-born, listen undistractedly. On the Fourth Day the red light, which is the primal form of the
    element fire, will shine. At that time, from the Red Western Realm of Happiness, the Bhagavan
    Buddha Amitabha, red in colour, bearing a lotus in his hand, seated upon a peacock-throne and
    embraced by the Divine Mother Gokarmo, will shine upon thee, [together with] the Bodhisattvas
    Chenrazee and Jampal, attended by the female Bodhisattvas Ghirdhima and Aloke. The six bodies of
    Enlightenment will shine upon thee from amidst a halo of rainbow light.

    The primal form of the aggregate of feelings as the red light of the All-Discriminating Wisdom,
    glitteringly red, glorified with orbs and satellite orbs, bright, transparent, glorious and dazzling,
    proceeding from the heart of the Divine Father-Mother Amitabha, will strike against thy heart [so
    radiantly] that thou wilt scarcely be able to look upon it. Fear it not.

    Along with it, a dull red light from the Preta-loka, coming side by side with the Light of Wisdom, will
    also shine upon thee. Act so that thou shalt not be fond of it. Abandon attachment [and] weakness [for
    it].

    At that time, through the influence of intense attachment, thou wilt become terrified by the dazzling
    red light, and wilt [wish to] flee from it. And thou wilt beget a fondness for that dull red light of the
    Preta-loka.

    At that time, be not afraid of the glorious, dazzling, transparent, radiant red light. Recognizing it as
    Wisdom, keeping thine intellect in a state of resignation, thou wilt merge [into it] inseparably and
    attain Buddhahood.

    If thou dost not recognize it, think, 'It is the rays of the grace of the Bhagavan Amitabha, and I will
    take refuge in it'; and, trusting humbly in it, pray unto it. That is the hook-rays of the grace of the
    Bhagavan Amitabha. Trust in it humbly; flee not. Even if thou fleest, it will follow thee inseparably
    [from thyself]. Fear it not. Be not attracted towards the dull red light of the Preta-loka. That is the
    light-path proceeding from the accumulations of thine intense attachment [to sangsaric existence]
    which hath come to receive thee. If thou be attached thereto, thou wilt fall into the World of Unhappy
    Spirits and suffer unbearable misery from hunger and thirst. Thou wilt have no chance of gaining
    Liberation [therein]. That dull red light is an interruption to obstruct thee on the Path of Liberation. Be
    not attached to it, and abandon habitual propensities. Be not weak. Trust in the bright dazzling red
    light. In the Bhagavan Amitabha, the Father-Mother, put thy trust one-pointedly and pray thus:

    'Alas! when wandering in the Sangsdra because of the power of intense attachment,
    On the radiant light-path of the Discriminating Wisdom

    May I be led by the Bhagavan Amitabha, May the Divine Mother, She-of- White-Raiment, be [my]
    rear-guard;

    May I be safely led across the dangerous ambush of the Bardo;
    And may I be placed in the state of the All-Perfect Buddhahood.'

    By praying thus, humbly and earnestly, thou wilt merge into the heart of the Divine Father-Mother, the
    Bhagavan Amitabha, in halo of rainbow-light, and attain Buddhahood in the Sambhoga-Kdya, in the
    Western Realm named Happy.

    [The Fifth Day]

    It is impossible that one should not be liberated thereby. Yet, though thus set face to face, sentient
    beings, unable through long association with propensities to abandon propensities, and, through bad
    karma and jealousy, awe and terror being produced by the sounds and radiances — the hook-rays of
    grace failing to catch hold of them — wander down also to the Fifth Day. [If one be such a sentient
    being], thereupon the Bhagavan Amogha-Siddhi, with his attendant deities and the light and rays of his
    grace, will come to receive one. A light proceeding from the Asura-loka, produced by the evil passion
    of jealousy, will also come to receive one.

    The setting-face-to-face at that time is, calling the deceased by name, thus:

    O nobly-born, listen undistractedly. On the Fifth Day, the green light of the primal form of the element
    air will shine upon thee. At that time, from the Green Northern Realm of Successful Performance of
    Best Actions, the Bhagavan Buddha Amogha-Siddhi, green in colour, bearing a crossed-Jor/e in hand,
    seated upon a sky-traversing Harpy-throne, embraced by the Divine Mother, the Faithful Dolma, will
    shine upon thee, with his attendants — the two Bodhisattvas Chag-na-Dorje and Dibpanamsel, attended
    by two female Bodhisattvas, Gandhema and Nidhema. These six Bodhic forms, from amidst a halo of
    rainbow light, will come to shine.

    The primal form of the aggregate of volition, shining as the green light of the All-Performing Wisdom,
    dazzlingly green, transparent and radiant, glorious and terrifying, beautified with orbs surrounded by
    satellite orbs of radiance, issuing from the heart of the Divine Father-Mother Amogha-Siddhi, green in
    colour, will strike against thy heart [so wondrously bright] that thou wilt scarcely be able to look at it.
    Fear it not. That is the natural power of the wisdom of thine own intellect. Abide in the state f great
    resignation of impartiality.

    Along with it [i.e. the green light of the All-Performing Wisdom], a light of dull green colour from the
    Asura-loka, produced from the cause of the feeling of jealousy, coming side by side with the Wisdom
    Rays, will shine upon thee. Meditate upon it with impartiality, — with neither repulsion nor attraction.
    Be not fond of it: if thou art of low mental capacity, be not fond of it.

    Thereupon, through the influence of intense jealousy, thou wilt be terrified at the dazzling radiance of
    the green light and wilt [with to] flee from it; and thou wilt beget a fondness for that dull green light of
    the Asura-loka. At that time fear not the glorious and transparent, radiant and dazzling green light, but
    know it to be Wisdom; and in that state allow thine intellect to rest in resignation. Or else [think], 'It is
    the hook-rays of the light of grace of the Bhagavan Amogha-Siddhi, which is the All-Performing
    Wisdom.' Believe [thus] on it. Flee not from it.

    Even though thou shouldst flee from it, it will follow thee inseparably [from thyself]. Fear it not. Be
    not fond of that dull green light of the Asura-loka. That is the karmic path of acquired intense jealousy,
    which hath come to receive thee. If thou art attracted by it, thou wilt fall into the Asura-loka and have
    to engage in unbearable miseries of quarrelling and warfare. [That is an] interruption to obstruct thy
    path of liberation. Be not attracted by it. Abandon thy propensities. Be not weak. Trust in the dazzling
    green radiance, and putting thy whole thought one-pointedly upon the Divine Father-Mother, the
    Bhagavan Amogha-Siddhi, pray thus:

    Alas! when wandering in the Sangsara because of the power of intense jealousy,

    On the radiant light-path of the All-Performing Wisdom

    MayI be led by the Bhagavan Amogha-Siddhi;

    May the Divine Mother, the Faithful Tara, be [my] rear-guard;

    May I be led safely across the dangerous ambush of the Bardo;

    And may I be placed in the state of the All-Perfect Buddhahood.'


    By prayer thus with intense faith and humility, thou wilt merge into the heart of the Divine Father-
    Mother, the Bhagavan Amogha-Siddhi, in halo of rainbow light, and attain Buddhahood in the
    Sambhoga-Kaya, in the Northern Realm of Heaped-up Good Deeds.

    [The Sixth Day]

    Being thus set face to face at various stages, however weak one's karmic connexions may be, one
    should have recognized in one or the other of them; and where one has recognized in any of them it is
    impossible not to be liberated. Yet, although set face to face so very often in that manner, one long
    habituated to strong propensities and lacking in familiarity with, and pure affection for, Wisdom, may
    be led backwards by the power of one's own evil inclinations despite these many introductions. The
    hook-rays of the light of grace may not be able to catch hold of one: one may still wander downwards
    because of one's begetting the feeling of awe and terror of the lights and rays.

    Thereupon all the Divine Fathers-Mothers of the Five Orders [of Dhyani Buddhas] with their
    attendants will come to shine upon one simultaneously. At the same time, the lights proceeding from
    the Six Lokas will likewise come to shine upon one simultaneously.

    The setting-face-to-face for that is, calling the deceased by name, thus:

    O nobly-born, until yesterday each of the Five Orders of Deities had shone upon thee, one by one; and
    thou hadst been set face to face, but, owing to the influence of thine evil propensities, thou wert awed
    and terrified by them and hast remained here till now.

    If thou hadst recognized the radiances of the Five Orders of Wisdom to be the emanations from thine
    own thought-forms, ere this thou wouldst have obtained Buddhahood in the Sambhoga-Kaya, through
    having been absorbed into the halo of rainbow light in one or another of the Five Orders of Buddhas.

    But now look on undistractedly. Now the lights of all Five Orders, called the Lights of the Union of
    Four Wisdoms, will come to receive thee. Act so as to know them.

    O nobly-born, on this the Sixth Day, the four colours of the primal states of the four elements [water,
    earth, fire, air] will shine upon thee simultaneously. At that time, from the Central Realm of the
    Spreading Forth of See, the Buddha Vairochana, the Divine Father-Mother, with the attendant
    [deities], will come to shine upon thee. From the Eastern Realm of Pre-eminent Happiness, the Buddha
    Vajra-Sattva, the Divine Father-Mother, with the attendant [deities] will come to shine upon thee.
    From the Southern Realm endowed with Glory, the Buddha Ratna-Sambhava, the Divine Father-
    Mother, with the attendant [deities] will come to shine upon thee. From the Happy Western Realm of
    Heaped-up Lotuses, the Buddha Amitabha, the Divine Father-Mother, along with the attendant
    [deities] will come to shine upon thee. From the Northern Realm of Perfected Good Deeds, the Buddha
    Amogha-Siddhi, the Divine Father-Mother, along with the attendants will come, amidst a halo of
    rainbow light, to shine upon thee at this very moment.

    'O nobly-born, on the outer circle of these five pair of Dhyani Buddhas, the [four] Door-Keepers, the
    Wrathful [Ones]: the Victorious One, the Destroyer of the Lord of Death, the Horse-necked King, the
    Urn of Nectar, with the four female Door-keepers: the Goad-Bearer, the Noose-Bearer, the Chain-
    Bearer, and the Bell-Bearer; along with the Buddha of the Devas, named the One of Supreme Power,
    the Buddha of the Asuras, named [He of] Strong Texture, the Buddha of Mankind, named the Lion of
    the Shakyas, the Buddha of the brute kingdom, named the Unshakable Lion, the Buddha of the Pretas,
    named the One of Flaming Mouth, and the Buddha of the Lower World, named the King of Truth: —
    [these], the Eight Father-Mother Door-keepers and the Six Teachers, the Victorious Ones — will come
    to shine, too.

    The All-Good Father, and the All-Good Mother, the Great Ancestors of all the Buddhas: Samata-
    Bhadra [and Samanta-Bhadra], the Divine Father and the Divine Mother — these two, also will come to
    shine.

    These forty-two perfectly endowed deities, issuing from within thy heart, being the product of thine
    own pure love, will come to shine. Know them.

    O nobly-born, these realms are not come from somewhere outside [thyself]. They come from within
    the four divisions of thy heart, which, including its centre, make the five directions. They issue from
    within there, and whine upon thee. The deities, too, are not come from somewhere else: they exist from
    eternity within the faculties of thine own intellect. Know them to be of that nature.

    O nobly-born, the size of all these deities is not large, not small, [but] proportionate. [They have] their
    ornaments, their colours, their sitting postures, their thrones, and the emblems that each holds.

    These deities are formed into groups of five pairs, each group of five being surrounded by a fivefold
    circle of radiances, the male Bodhisattvas partaking of the nature of the Divine Fathers, and the female
    Bodhisattvas partaking of the nature of the Divine Mothers. All these divine conclaves will come to
    shine upon thee in one complete conclave. They are thine own tutelary deities. Know them to be such.

    O nobly-born, from the hearts of the Divine Fathers and Mothers of the Five Orders, the rays of light
    of the Four Wisdoms united, extremely clear and fine, like the rays of the sun spun into threads, will
    come and shine upon thee and strike against thy heart.

    On that path of radiance there will come to shine glorious orbs of lights, blue in colour, emitting rays,
    the Dharma-Dhatu Wisdom [itself], each appearing like an inverted turquoise cup, surrounded by
    similar orbs, smaller in size, more glorious with five yet smaller [satellite] orbs dotted round about
    with five starry spots of light of the same nature, leaving neither the centre nor the borders [of the blue
    light-path] unglorified by the orbs and the smaller [satellite] orbs.

    From the heart of Vajra-Sattva, the white light-path of the Mirror-like Wisdom, white and transparent,
    glorious and dazzling, glorious and terrifying, made more glorious with orbs surrounded by smaller
    orbs of transparent and radiant light upon it, each like an inverted mirror, will come to shine.

    From the heart of Ratna-Sambhava, the yellow light-path of the Wisdom of Equality, [glorified] with
    yellow orbs [of radiance], each like an inverted gold cup, surrounded by smaller orbs, and these with
    yet smaller orbs, will come to shine.

    From the heart of Amitabha, the transparent, bright red light-path of the Discriminating Wisdom, upon
    which are ors, like inverted coral cups, emitting rays of Wisdom, extremely bright and dazzling, each
    glorified with five [satellite] orbs of the same nature — leaving neither the centre nor the borders [of the
    red light-path] unglorified with orbs and smaller satellite orbs — will come to shine.

    These will come to shine against thy heart simultaneously.

    O nobly-born, all those are the radiances of thine own intellectual faculties come to shine. They have
    not come from any other place. Be not attracted towards them; be not weak; be not terrified; but abide
    in the mood of non-thought-formation. In that state all the forms and radiances will merge into thyself,
    and Buddhahood will be obtained.

    The green light-path of the Wisdom of Perfected Actions will not shine upon thee, because the
    Wisdom-faculty of thine intellect hath not been perfectly developed.

    O nobly-born, those are called the Lights of the Four Wisdoms United, [whence proceeds that] which
    is called the Inner Path through Vajra-Sattva.

    At that time, thou must remember the teachings of the setting-face-to-face which thou hast had from
    thy guru. If thou hast remembered the purport of the settings-face-to-face, thou wilt have recognized
    all these lights which have shone upon thee, as being the reflection of thine own inner light, and,
    having recognized them as intimate friends, thou wilt have believed in them and have understood
    [them at] the meeting, as a son understandeth his mother.

    And believing in the unchanging nature of the pure and holy Truth, thou wilt have had produced in
    thee the tranquil-flowing Samddhi; and, having merged into the body of the perfectly evolved intellect,
    thou wilt have obtained Buddhahood in the Sambhoga-Kdya, whence there is no return.

    O nobly-born, along with the radiances of Wisdom, the impure illusory lights of the Six Lokas will
    also come to shine. If it be asked, 'What are they?' [they are] a dull white light from the devas, a dull
    green light from the asuras, a dull yellow light from human beings, a dull blue light from the brutes, a
    dull reddish light from the pretas, and a dull smoke-coloured light from Hell. These six thus will come
    to shine, along with the six radiances of Wisdom; whereupon, be not afraid of nor be attracted towards
    any, but allow thyself to rest in the non-thought condition.

    If thou art frightened by the pure radiances of Wisdom and attracted by the impure lights of the Six
    Lokas, then thou wilt assume a body in any of the Six Lokas and suffer sangsaric miseries; and thou
    wilt never be emancipated from the Ocean of Sangsdra , wherein thou wilt be whirled round and round
    and made to taste of the sufferings thereof.

    O nobly-born, if thou art one who hath not obtained the select words of the guru, thou wilt have fear of
    the pure radiances of Wisdom and of the deities thereof. Being thus frightened, thou wilt be attracted
    towards the impure sangsaric objects. Act not so. Humbly trust in the dazzling pu7re radiances of
    Wisdom. Frame thy mind to faith, and think, 'The compassionate radiances of Wisdom of the Five
    Orders of Buddhas have come to take hold of me out of compassion; I take refuge in them.'

    Not yielding to attraction towards the illusory lights of the Six Lokas, but devoting thy whole mind
    one-pointedly towards the Divine Fathers and Mothers, the Buddhas of the Five Orders, pray thus:

    'Alas! when wandering in the Sangsdra through the power of the five virulent poisons,

    On the bright radiance-path of the Four Wisdoms united,

    May I be led by the Five Victorious Conquerors,

    May the Five Orders of Divine Mothers be [my] rear-guard;

    May I be rescued from the impure light-paths of the Six Lokas;

    And, being saved from the ambuscades of the dread Bardo,

    May I be placed within the five pure Divine Realms.'


    By thus praying, one recognizeth one's own inner light; and, merging one's self therein, in at-one-ment,
    Buddhahood is attained: through humble faith, the ordinary devotee cometh to know himself, and
    obtaineth Liberation; even the most lowly, by the power f the pure prayer, can close the doors of the
    Six Lokas, and, in understanding the real meaning of the Four Wisdoms united, obtain Buddhahood by
    the hollow pathway through Vajra-Sattva.

    Thus by being set face to face in that detailed manner, those who are destined to be liberated will come
    to recognize [the Truth]; thereby many will attain Liberation.

    The worst of the worst, [those] of heavy evil karma, having not the least predilection for any religion —
    and some who have failed in their vows — through the power of karmic illusions, not recognizing,
    although set face to face [with Truth], will stray downwards.

    [The Seventh Day]

    On the Seventh Day, the Knowledge-Holding Deities, from the holy paradise realms, come to receive
    on. Simultaneously, the pathway to the brute world, produced by the obscuring passion, stupidity, also
    cometh to receive one. The setting-face-to-face at that time is, calling the deceased by name, thus:

    O nobly-born, listen undistractedly. On the Seventh Day the vari-coloured radiance of the purified
    propensities will come to shine. Simultaneously, the Knowledge-Holding Deities, from the holy
    paradise realms, will come to receive one.

    From the centre of the Circle [or Mandala], enhaloed in radiance of rainbow light, the supreme
    Knowledge-Holding [Deity], the Lotus Lord of Dance, the Supreme Knowledge-Holder Who Ripens
    Karmic Fruits, radiant with all the five colours, embraced by the [Divine] Mother, the Red DdkinT, [he]
    holding a crescent knife and a skull [filled] with blood, dancing and making the mudra of fascination,
    [with his right hand held] aloft, will come to shine.

    To the east of that Circle, the deity called the Earth- Abiding Knowledge-Holder, white of colour, with
    radiant smiling countenance, embraced by the White DdkinT, the [Divine] Mother, [he] holding a
    crescent knife and a skull [filled] with blood, dancing and making the mudra of fascination, [with his
    right hand held] aloft, will come to shine.

    To the south of that Circle, the Knowledge-Holding Deity called [He] Having Power Over Duration of
    Life, yellow in colour, smiling and radiant, embraced by the Yellow DdkinT, the [Divine] Mother, [he]
    holding a crescent knife and a skull [filled] with blood, dancing and making the mudra of fascination,
    [with his right hand held] aloft, will come to shine.

    To the west of that Circle, the Knowledge-Holding Deity of the Great Symbol, red of colour, smiling
    and radiant, embraced by the Red DdkinT, the [Divine] Mother, [he] holding a crescent knife and a
    skull [filled] with blood, dancing and making the mudra of fascination, [with his right hand held] aloft,
    will come to shine.

    To the north of that Circle, the deity called Self-Evolved Knowledge-Holder, green of colour, with a
    half-angry, half-smiling countenance, embraced by the Green Dakinl, the [Divine] Mother, [he]
    holding a crescent knife and a skull [filled] with blood, dancing and making the mudra of fascination,
    [with his right hand held] aloft, will come to shine.

    In the Outer Circle, round about these Knowledge-Holders, innumerable bands of ddkinTs — ddkinTs of
    the eight places of cremation, ddkinTs of the four classes, ddkinTs of the three abodes, ddkinTs of the
    thirty holy-places and of the twenty-four places of pilgrimage — heroes, heroines, celestial warriors,
    and faith-protecting deities, male and female, each bedecked with the six bone-ornaments, having
    drums and thigh-bone trumpets, skull-timbrels, banners of gigantic human[-like] hides, human-hide
    canopies, human-hide bannerettes, fumes of human-fat incense, and innumerable [other] kinds of
    musical instruments, filling [with music] the whole world-systems and causing them to vibrate, to
    quake and tremble with sounds so mighty as to daze one's brain, and dancing various measures, will
    come to receive the faithful and punish the unfaithful.

    O nobly-born, five-coloured radiances, of the Wisdom of the Simultaneously-Born, which are the
    purified propensities, vibrating and dazzling like coloured threads, flashing, radiant, and transparent,
    glorious and awe-inspiring, will issue from the hearts of the five chief Knowledge-Holding Deities and
    strike against thy heart, so bright that thy eye cannot bear to look upon them.

    At the same time, a dull blue light from the brute world will come to shine along with the Radiances of
    Wisdom. Then, through the influence of the illusions of thy propensities, thou wilt feel afraid of the
    radiance of the five colours; and [wishing to] flee from it, thou wilt feel attracted towards the dull light
    from the brute-world. Thereupon, be not afraid of that brilliant radiance of five colours, nor terrified;
    but know the Wisdom to be thine own.

    Within those radiances, the natural sound of the Truth will reverberate like a thousand thunders. The
    sound will come with a rolling reverberation, [amidst which] will be heard, 'Slay! Slay!' and awe-
    inspiring mantras. Fear not. Flee not. Be not terrified. Know them [i.e. these sounds] to be [of] the
    intellectual faculties of thine own [inner] light.

    Be not attracted towards the dull blue light of the brute-world; be not weak. If thou art attracted, thou
    wilt fall into the brute -world, wherein stupidity predominates, and suffer the illimitable miseries of
    slavery and dumbness and stupidness; and it will be a very long time ere thou canst get out. Be not
    attracted towards it. Put thy faith in the bright, dazzling, five-coloured radiance. Direct thy mind one-
    pointedly towards the deities, the Knowledge-Holding Conquerors. Think, one-pointedly, thus: 'These
    Knowledge-Holding Deities, the Heroes, and the DdkinTs have come from the holy paradise realms to
    receive me; I supplicate them all: up to this day, although the Five Orders of the Buddhas of the Three
    Times have all exerted the rays of their grace and compassion, yet have I not been rescued by them.
    Alas, for a being like me! May the Knowledge-Holding Deities not let me go downwards further than
    this, but hold me with the hook of their compassion, and lead me to the holy paradises.'

    Thinking in that manner, one-pointedly, pray thus:

    'O ye Knowledge-Holding Deities, pray hearken unto me;
    Lead me on the Path, out of your great love

    When {I am] wandering in the Sangsdra, because of intensified propensities,

    On the bright light-path of the Simultaneously-born Wisdom

    May the bands of Heroes, the Knowledge-Holders, lead me;

    May the bands of the Mothers, the ddkinTs, be [my] rear-guard;

    May they save me from the fearful ambuscades of the Bardo,

    And place me in the pure Paradise Realms.'


    Praying thus, in deep faith and humility, there is no doubt that one will be born within the pure
    Paradise Realms, after being merged, in rainbow-light, into the heart of the Knowledge-Holding
    Deities.

    All the pandit classes, too, coming to recognize at this stage, obtain liberation; even those of evil
    propensities being sure to be liberated here.

    Here endeth the part of the Great Thodol concerned with the setting-face-to-face of the Peaceful
    [Deities] of the Chonyid Bardo and the setting-face-to-face of the Clear Light of the Chikhai Bardo.

    [The Dawning of the Wrathful Deities, from the Eight to the Fourteenth Day]

    [Introduction]

    Now the manner of the dawning of the Wrathful Deities is to be shown.

    In the above Bardo of the Peaceful [Deities} there were seven stages of ambuscade. The setting-face-
    to-face at each stage should have [caused the deceased] to recognize either at one or another [stage]
    and to have been liberated.

    Multitudes will be liberated by that recognition; [and] although multitudes obtain liberation in that
    manner, the number of sentient beings being great, evil karma powerful, obscurations dense,
    propensities o too long standing, the Wheel of Ignorance and Illusion becometh neither exhausted nor
    accelerated. Although [all be] set face-to-face in such detail, there is a vast preponderance of those who
    wander downwards unliberated.

    Therefore, after the cessation [of the dawning] of the Peaceful and the Knowledge-Holding Deities,
    who come to welcome one, the fifty-eight flame-enhaloed, wrathful, blood-drinking deities come to
    dawn, who are only the former Peaceful Deities in changed aspect-according to the place [or psychic-
    centre of the Bardo-body of the deceased whence they proceed]; nevertheless, they will not resemble
    them.

    This is the Bardo of the Wrathful Deities; and, they being influenced by fear, terror, and awe,
    recognition becometh more difficult. The intellect, gaining not in independence, passeth from one
    fainting state to a round of fainting states. [Yet], if one but recognize a little, it is easier to be liberated
    [at this stage]. If it be asked why? [the answer is]: Because of the dawning of the radiances — [which
    produce] fear, terror, and awe — the intellect is undistractedly alert in one-pointedness; that is why.

    If at this stage one do not meet with this kind of teaching, one's hearing [of religious lore] — although it
    be like an ocean [in its vastness] — is of no avail. There are even disciplines-holding abbots [or
    bhikkhus] and doctors in metaphysical discourses who err at this stage, and, not recognizing, wander
    into the Sangsdra.

    As for the common worldly folk, what need is there to mention them! By fleeing, through fear, terror,
    and awe, they fall over the precipices into the unhappy worlds and suffer. But the least of the least of
    the devotees of the mystic mantrayand doctrines, as soon as he sees these blood-drinking deities, will
    recognize them to be his tutelary deities, and the meeting will be like that of human acquaintances. He
    will trust them; and becoming merged into them, in at-one-ment, will obtain Buddhahood.

    By having meditated on the description of these blood-drinking deities, while in the human world, and
    by having performed some worship or praise of them; or, at least, by having seen their painted
    likenesses and their images, upon witnessing the dawning of the deities at this stage, recognition of
    them will result, and liberation. In this lieth the art.

    Again, at the death of those discipline -holding abbots and doctors in metaphysical discourses [who
    remain uninstructed in these Bardo teachings], however assiduously they may have devoted
    themselves to religious practices, and however in the human world, there will not come any
    phenomenal signs such as rainbow-halo [at the funeral-pyre] nor bone-reliques [from the ashes]. This
    is because when they lived the mystic [or esoteric] doctrines were never held within their heart, and
    because they had spoken contemptuously of them, and because they were never acquainted [through
    initiation] with the deities of the mystic [or esoteric] doctrines; thus, when these dawn on the Bardo,
    they do not recognize them. Suddenly [seeing] what they had never seen before, engendered, they pass
    into the miserable states because of that. Therefore, if the observers of the disciplines, and the [or
    esoteric] doctrines, such signs as the rainbow-halo come not, nor are bone-reliques and seed-like bones
    ever produced [from the bones of their funeral-pyre]: these are the reasons for it.

    The least of the least of mantraydnic [devotees] — who may seem to be of very unrefined manners,
    unindustrious, untactful, and who may not live in accordance with his vows, and who in every way
    may be inelegant in his habits, and even unable, perhaps, to carry the practices of his teachings to a
    successful issue — let no one feel disrespect for nor doubt him, but pay reverence to
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     Reply #102 - April 26, 2017, 09:09 PM

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ah2ckzXgrx4

    the esoteric [or mystic] doctrines [which he holdeth]. By that, alone, one obtaineth liberation at this stage.

    Even though the deeds [of one paying such reverence] may not have been very elegant while in the
    human world, at his death there will come at least one kind of sign, such a rainbow-radiance, bone-
    images, and bone-reliques. This is because the esoteric [or mystic] doctrines possess great gift-waves.

    [Those of, and] above, the mystic mantraydnic devotees of ordinary [psychic development], who have
    meditated upon the visualization and perfection processes and practiced the essences [or essence
    mantras], need not wander down this far on the Chonyid Bardo. As soon as they cease to breathe, they
    will be led into the pure paradise realms by the Heroes and Heroines and the Knowledge-Holders. As a
    sign of this, the sky will be cloudless; they will merge into rainbow radiance; there will be sun-
    showers, sweet scent of incense [in the air], music in the skies, radiances; bone-reliques and images
    [from their funeral-pyre].

    Therefore, to the abbots [or discipline -holders], to the doctors, and to those mystics who have failed in
    their vows, and to all the common people, this Thodol is indispensable. But those who have meditated
    upon the Great Perfection and the Great Symbol will recognize the Clear Light at the moment of death;
    and, obtaining the Dharma-Kdya, all of them will be such as not to need the reading of this Thodol. By
    recognizing the Clear Light at the moment of death, they also will recognize the visions of the Peaceful
    and the Wrathful during the Chonyid Bardo, and obtain the Sambhoga-Kaya; or, recognizing during
    the Sidpa Bardo, obtain the Nirmana-Kaya; and, taking birth on the higher planes, will, in the next
    rebirth, meet with this Doctrine, and then enjoy the continuity of karma.

    Therefore, this Thodol is the doctrine by which Buddhahood may be attained without meditation; the
    doctrine liberating by the hearing [of it] alone; the doctrine which leadeth brings of great evil karma on
    the Secret Path; the doctrine which produceth differentiation instantaneously [between those who are
    initiated into it and those who are not]: being the profound doctrine which Conferreth Perfect
    Enlightenment instantaneously. Those sentient beings who have been reached by it cannot go to the
    unhappy states.

    This [doctrine] and the Tahdol [doctrine], when joined together being like unto a mandala of gold inset
    with turquoise, combine them.

    Thus, the indispensable nature of the Thodol being shown, there now cometh the setting-face-to-face
    with the dawning of the Wrathful [Deities] in the Bardo.

    [The Eighth Day]

    Again, calling the deceased by name, [address him] thus:

    O nobly-born, listen undistractedly. Not having been able to recognize when the Peaceful [Deities]
    shone upon thee in the Bardo above, thou hast come wandering thus far. Now, on the Eighth Day, the
    blood-drinking Wrathful Deities will come to shine. Act so as to recognize them without being
    distracted.

    O nobly-born, the Great Glorious Buddha-Heruka, dark-brown of colour; with three heads, six hands,
    and four feet firmly postured; the right [face] being white, the left, red, the central, dark-brown; the
    body emitting flames of radiance; the nine eyes widely opened, in terrifying gaze; the eyebrows
    quivering like lightening; the protruding teeth glistening and set over one another; giving vent to
    sonorous utterances of 'a-la-la' and 'ha-ha', and piercing whistling sounds; the hair of a reddish-yellow
    colour, standing on end, and emitting radiance; the heads adorned with dried [human] skulls, and the
    [symbols of the] sun and moon; black serpents and raw [human] heads forming a garland for the body;
    the first of the right hands holding a wheel, the middle one, a sword, the last one, a battle-axe; the first
    of the left hands, a bell, the middle one, a skull-bowl, the last one, a ploughshare; his body embraced
    by the Mother, Buddha-Krotishaurima, her right hand clinging to his neck and her left putting to his
    mouth a red shell [filled with blood], [making] a palatal sound like a crackling [and] a clashing sound,
    and a rumbling sound as loud as thunder; [emanating from the two deities] radiant flames of wisdom,
    blazing from every hair-pore [of the body] and each containing a flaming dorje; [the two deities
    together thus], standing with [one] leg bent and [the other] straight and tense, on a dais supported by
    horned eagles, will come froth from within thine own brain and shine vividly upon thee. Fear that not.
    Be not awed. Know it to be the embodiment of thine own intellect. As it is thine own tutelary deity, be
    not terrified. Be not afraid, for in reality is it the Bhagavan Vairochana, the Father-Mother.
    Simultaneously with the recognition, liberation will be obtained: if they be recognized, merging
    [thyself], in at-one-ment, into the tutelary deity, Buddhahood in the Sambhoga-Kaya will be won.

    [The Ninth Day]

    But if one flee from them, through awe and terror being begotten, then, on the Ninth Day, the blood-
    drinking [deities] of the Vajra Order will come to receive one. Thereupon, the setting-face-to-face is,
    calling the deceased by name, thus: O nobly-born, listen undistractedly. [He of the blood-drinking
    Vajra Order named the Bhagavan Vajra-Heruka, dark-blue in colour; with three faces, six hands, and
    four feet firmly postured; in the first right hand [holding] a dorje, in the middle [one], a skull-bowl, in
    the last [one], a battle axe; in the first of the left, a bell, in the middle [one] a skull-bowl, in the last
    [one], a ploughshare: his body embraced by the Mother Vajra-Krotishaurima, her right [hand] clinging
    to his neck, her left offering to his mouth a red shell [filled with blood], will issue from the eastern
    quarter of thy brain and come to shine upon thee. Fear it not. Be not terrified. Be not awed. Know it to
    be the embodiment of thine own intellect. As it is thine own tutelary deity, be not terrified. In reality
    [they are] the Bhagavan Vajra-Sattva, the Father and Mother. Believe in them. Recognizing them,
    liberation will be obtained at once. By so proclaiming [them], knowing them to be tutelary deities,
    merging [in them] in at-one-ment, Buddhahood will be obtained.

    [The Tenth Day]

    Yet, if one do not recognize them, the obscurations of evil deeds being too great, and flee from them
    through terror and awe, then, on the Tenth Day, the blood-drinking [deities] of the [Precious]-Gem
    Order will come to receive one. Thereupon the setting-face-to-face is, calling the deceased by name,
    thus:

    O nobly- born, listen. On the Tenth Day, the blood-drinking [deity] of the [Precious] -Gem Order
    named Ratna-Heruka, yellow of colour; [having] three faces, six hands, four feet firmly postured; the
    right [face] white, the left, red, the central darkish yellow; enhaloed in flames; in the first of the six
    hands holding a gem, in the middle [one], a trident-staff, in the last [one], a baton; in the first of the left
    [hands], a bell, in the middle [one], a skull-bowl, in the last [one], a trident-staff; his body embraced by
    the Mother Ratna-Krotishaurima, her right [hand] clinging to his neck, her left offering to his mouth a
    red shell [filled with blood], will issue from the southern quarter of thy brain and come to shine upon
    thee. Fear not. Be not terrified. Be not awed. Know them to be the embodiment of thine own intellect.
    [They] being thine own tutelary deity, be not terrified. In reality [they are] the Father-Mother
    Bhagavan Ratna-Sambhava. Believe in them. Recognition [of them] and the obtaining of liberation
    will be simultaneous.

    [The Eleventh Day]

    Yet, though set face-to-face thus, if, through power of evil propensities, terror and awe being produced,
    not recognizing them to be tutelary deities, one flee from them, then, on the Eleventh Day, the blood-
    drinking Lotus Order will come to receive one. Thereupon the setting-face-to-face is, calling the
    deceased by name, thus:

    O nobly-born, on the Eleventh Day, the blood-drinking [deity] of the Lotus Order, called the Bhagavan
    Padma-Heruka, of reddish-black colour; [having] three faces, six hands, and four feet firmly postured,
    the right[face] white, the left, blue, the central, darkish red; in the first of the right of the six hands
    holding a lotus, in the middle [one], a trident-staff, in the last, a club; in the first of the left [hands], a
    bell, in the middle [one], a skull-bowl filled with blood, in the last, a small drum; his body embraced
    by the Mother Padma-Krotishaurima, her right hand clinging to his neck, her left offering to his mouth
    a red shell [filled with blood]; the Father and Mother in union; will issue from the western quarter of
    thy brain and come to shine upon thee. Fear that not. Be not terrified. Be not awed. Rejoice. Recognize
    [them] to be the product of thine own intellect; as [they are] thine own tutelary deity, be not afraid. In
    reality they are the Father -Mother Bhagavan Amitabha. Believe in them. Concomitantly with
    recognition, liberation will come. Through such acknowledging, recognizing them to be tutelary
    deities, in at-one-ment thou wilt merge [into them], and obtain Buddhahood.

    [The Twelfth Day]

    Despite such setting-face-to-face, being still led backwards by evil propensities, terror and awe arising,
    it may be that one recognize not and flee. Thereupon, on the Twelfth Day, the blood-drinking deities of
    the Karmic Order, accompanies by the Kerima, Htamenma, and Wang-chugma, will come to receive
    one. Not recognizing, terror may be produced. Whereupon, the setting-face-to-face is, calling the
    deceased by name, thus:

    O nobly-born, on the Twelfth Day, the blood-drinking deity of the Karmic Order, named Karma-
    Herua, dark green of colour; [having] three faces, six hands, [and] four feet firmly postured; the right
    [face] white, the left, red, the middle, dark green; majestic [of appearance]; in the first of the right of
    six hands, holding a sword, in the middle [one], a trident-staff, in the last, a club; in the first of the left
    [hands], a bell, in the middle [one], a skull-bowl, in the last, a plough-share; his body embraced by the
    Mother Karma-Krotishaurima, her right [hand] clinging to his neck, the left offering to his mouth a red
    shell; the Father and Mother in union, issuing from the northern quarter of thy brain, will come to shine
    upon thee. Fear that not. Be not terrified. Be not awed. Recognize them to be the embodiment of thine
    own intellect. [They] being thine own tutelary deity, be not afraid. In reality they are the Father-Mother
    Bhagavan Amogha-Siddhi. Believe; and be humble; and be fond [of them]. Concomitantly with
    recognition, liberation will come. Through such acknowledging, recognizing them to be tutelary
    deities, in at-one-ment thou wilt merge [into them], and obtain Buddhahood. Through the guru's select
    teaching, one cometh to recognize them to be the thought-forms issuing from one's own intellectual
    faculties. For instance, a person, upon recognizing a lion-skin [to be a lion-skin], is freed [from fear];
    for though it be only a stuffed lion skin, if one do not know it to be so actually, fear ariseth, but, upon
    being told by some person that it is a lion-skin only, one is freed from fear. Similarly here, too, when
    the bands of blood-drinking deities, huge of proportions, with very thick-set limbs, dawn as big as the
    skies, awes and terror are naturally produced in one. [But] as soon as the setting-face-to-face is heard
    [one] recognizeth them to be one's own tutelary deities and one's own thought- forms. Then, when
    upon the Mother Clear-Light — which one had been accustomed to formerly — a secondary Clear-
    Light, the Offspring Clear-Light, coming together like two intimate acquaintances, blend inseparably,
    and [therefrom] a self-emancipating radiance dawneth upon one, through self-enlightenment and self-
    knowledge one is liberated.

    [The Thirteenth Day]

    If this setting-face-to-face be not obtained, good persons on the Path, too, fall back from here and
    wander into the Sangsdra. Then the Eight Wrathful Ones, the Kerimas, and the Htamenmas, having
    various [animal] heads, issue from within one's own brain and come to shine upon one's self. There-
    upon the setting-face-to-face is, calling the deceased by name, thus:

    O nobly-born, listen undistractedly. On the Thirteenth Day, from the eastern quarter of thy brain, the
    Eight Kerimas will emanate and come to shine upon thee. Fear that not.

    From the east of thy brain, the White Kerima, holding a human corpse, as a club, in the right [hand]; in
    the left, holding a skull-bowl filled with blood, will come to shine upon thee. Fear not.

    From the south, the Yellow Tseurima, holding a bow and arrow, ready to shoot; from the west, the Red
    Pramoha, holding a maWa-banner; from the north, the Black Petali, holding a dorje and a blood-filled
    skull-bowl; from the south-east, the Red Pukkase, holding intestines in the right [hand] and [with] the
    left putting them to her mouth; from the south-west, the Dark-Green Ghasmarl, the left [hand] holding
    a blood- filled skull-bowl, [with] the right stirring it with a dorje, and [she then] drinking it with
    majestic relish; from the north-west, the Yellowish- White Tsandhal?, tearing asunder a head from a
    corpse, the right [hand] holding a heart, the left putting the corpse to the mouth and [she then] eating
    [thereof]; from the north-east, the Dark-Blue Smasha, tearing asunder a head from a corpse and eating
    [thereof]: these, the Eight Kerimas of the Abodes [or Eight Directions], also come to shine upon thee,
    surrounding the Five Blood-drinking Fathers. Yet be not afraid.

    O nobly-born, from the Circle outside of them, the Eight Htamenmas of the [eight] regions [of the
    brain] will come to shine upon thee: from the east, the Dark-Brown Lion-Headed One, the hands
    crossed on the breast, and in the mouth holding a corpse, and shaking the mane; from the south, the
    Red Tiger-Headed One, the hands crossed downwards, grinning and showing the fangs and looking on
    with protruding eyes; from the west, the Black Fox-Headed One, the right [hand] holding a shaving-
    knife, the left holding an intestine, and [she] eating and licking the blood [therefrom]; from the north,
    the Dark-Blue Wolf-Headed One, the two hands tearing open a corpse and looking on with protruding
    eyes; from the south-east, the Yellowish- White Vulture-Headed One, bearing a gigantic [human-
    shaped] corpse on the shoulder and holding a skeleton in the hand; from the south-west, the Dark-Red
    Cemetery-Bird-Headed One, carrying a gigantic corpse on the shoulder; from the north-west, the Black
    Crow-Headed One, the left [hand] holding a skull-bowl, the right holding a sword, and [she] eating
    heart and lungs; from the north-east, the Dark-Blue Owl-Headed One, holding a dorje in the right
    [hand], and holding a skull-bowl in the left, and eating.

    These Eight Htamenmas of the [eight] regions, likewise surrounding the Blood-Drinking Fathers, and
    issuing from within thy brain, come to shine upon thee. Fear that not. Know them to be the thought-
    forms of thine own intellectual faculties.


    [The Fourteenth Day]

    O nobly-born on the Fourteenth Day, the Four Female Door-Keepers, also issuing from within thine
    own brain, will come to shine upon thee. Again recognize. From the east [quarter] of thy brain will
    come to shine the White Tiger-Headed Goad-Holding Goddess, bearing a blood-filled skull-bowl in
    her left [hand]; from the south, the Yellow Sow-Headed Noose-Holding Goddess; from the west, the
    Red Lion-Headed Iron-Chain-Holding Goddess; and from the north, the Green Serpent-Headed Bell-
    Holding Goddess. Thus, issue the Four Female Door-Keepers also from within thine own brain and
    come to shine upon thee; as tutelary deities, recognize them.

    O nobly-born, on the outer Circle of these thirty wrathful deities, Herukas, the twenty-eight various-
    headed mighty goddesses, bearing various weapons, issuing from within thine own brain, will come to
    shine upon thee. Fear that not. Recognize whatever shineth to be the thought-forms of thine own
    intellectual faculties. At this vitally important time, recollect the select teachings of the guru.

    O nobly-born, [there will dawn] from the east the Dark-Brown Yak-Headed Rakshasa-Goddess,
    holding a dorje and a skull; and the Reddish- Yellow Serpent-Headed Brahma-Goddess, holding a lotus
    in her hand; and the Greenish-Black Leopard-Headed Great-Goddess, holding a trident in her hand;
    and the Blue Monkey-Headed Goddess of Inquisitiveness, holding a wheel; and the Red Snow-Bear-
    Headed Virgin-Goddess, bearing a short spear in the hand; and the White Bear-Headed Indra-Goddess,
    holding an intestine-noose in the hand: [these], the Six Yoginis of the East, issuing from within the
    [eastern quarter of thine own] brain, will come to shine upon thee; | fear that not.

    O nobly-born, from the south [will dawn] the Yellow Bat-Headed Delight-Goddess, holding a shaving-
    knife in the hand; and the Red Makara-Headed Peaceful- [Goddess], holding an urn in the hand; and the
    Red Scorpion-Headed Amrita-Goddess, holding a lotus in the hand; and the White Kite-Headed Moon-
    Goddess, | holding a dorje in the hand; and the Dark-Green Fox-Headed Baton-Goddess, flourishing a
    club in the hand; and the Yellowish-Black Tiger-Headed RakshasT, holding a blood-filled skull-bowl in
    the hand: [these] the Six Yoginis of the South, issuing from within the [southern quarter of thine own]
    brain, will come to shine upon thee; fear that not.

    O nobly-born, from the west [will dawn] the Greenish-Black Vulture-Headed Eater-Goddess, holding a
    baton in the hand; and the Red Horse-Headed Delight-Goddess, holding a huge trunk of a corpse; and
    the White Eagle-Headed Mighty-Goddess, holding a club in the hand; and the Yellow Dog-Headed
    RakshasT, holding a dorje in the hand and a shaving-knife and cutting [with this]; and the Red Hoopoo-
    Headed Desire-Goddess, holding a bow and arrow in the hand aimed; and the Green Stag-Headed
    Wealth-Guardian Goddess, holding an urn in the hand: [these], the Six Yoginis of the West, issuing
    from within the [western quarter of thine own] brain, will come to shine upon thee; fear that not.

    O nobly-born, from the north [will dawn] the Blue Wolf-Headed Wind-Goddess, waving a pennant in
    the hand; and the Red Ibex-Headed Woman-Goddess, holding a pointed stake in the hand; and the
    Black Sow-Headed Sow-Goddess, holding a noose of fangs in the hand; and the Red Crow-Headed
    Thunderbolt-Goddess, holding an infant corpse in the hand; and the Greenish-Black Elephant-Headed
    Big-Nosed Goddess, holding in the hand a big corpse and drinking blood from a skull; and the Blue
    Serpent-Headed Water-Goddess, holding in the hand a serpent noose: [these], the Six Yoginis of the
    North, issuing from within [the northern quarter of] thine own brain, will come to shine upon thee; fear
    that not.

    O nobly-born, the Four Yoginis of the Door, issuing from within the brain, will come to shine upon
    thee: from the east, the Black Cuckoo-Headed Mystic Goddess, holding an iron hook in the hand; from
    the south, the Yellow Goat-Headed Mystic Goddess, holding a noose in the hand; from the west, the
    Red Lion-Headed Mystic Goddess, holding an iron chain in the hand; and from the north, the
    Greenish-Black Serpent-Headed Mystic Goddess: [these], the Four Door-Keeping Yoginis, issuing
    from within the brain, will come to shine upon thee.

    Since these Twenty-eight Mighty Goddesses emanate from the bodily powers of Ratna-Sambhava,
    [He] of the Six Heruka Deities, recognize them.

    O nobly-born, the Peaceful Deities emanate from the Voidness of the Dharma-Kdya; recognize them.
    From the Radiance of the Dharma-Kdya emanate the Wrathful Deities; recognize them.

    At this time when the Fifty-eight Blood-Drinking Deities emanating from thine own brain come to
    shine upon thee, if thou knowest them to be the radiances of thine own intellect, thou wilt merge, in the
    state of at-one-ment, into the body of the Blood-Drinking Ones there and then, and obtain
    Buddhahood.

    O nobly-born, by not recognizing now, and by fleeing from the deities out of fear, again sufferings will
    come to overpower thee. If this be not known, fear being begotten of the Blood-Drinking Deities, [one
    is] awed and terrified and fainteth away: one's own thought-forms turn into illusory appearances, and
    one wandereth into the Sangsdra; if one be not awed and terrified, one will not wander into the
    Sangsdra.

    Furthermore, the bodies of the largest of the Peaceful and Wrathful Deities are equal [in vastness] to
    the limits of the heaves; the intermediate, as big as Mt. Meru; the smallest, equal to eighteen bodies
    such as thine own body, set one upon another. Be not terrified at that; be not awed. If all existing
    phenomena shining forth as divine shapes and radiances be recognized to be the emanations of one's
    own intellect, Buddhahood will be obtained at that very instant of recognition. The saying,
    'Buddhahood will be obtained in a moment [of time]' is that which applieth now. Bearing this in mind,
    one will obtain Buddhahood by merging, in at-one-ment, into the Radiances and the Kdyas.

    O nobly-born, whatever fearful and terrifying visions thou mayst see, recognize them to be thine own
    thought-forms.

    O nobly-born, if thou recognize not, and be frightened, then all the Peaceful Deities will shine forth in
    the shape of Maha-Kala; and all the Wrathful Deities will shine [forth] in the form of Dharma-Raja, the
    Lord of Death; and thine own thought- forms becoming Illusions [or Mdras], thou wilt wander into the
    Sangsdra.

    O nobly-born, if one recognize not one's own thought-forms, however learned one may be in the
    Scriptures — both Sutras and Tantras — although practicing religion for a kalpa, one obtaineth not
    Buddhahood. If one recognize one's own thought-forms, by one important art and by one word,
    Buddhahood is obtained.

    If one's thought-forms be not recognized as soon as one dieth, the shapes of Dharma-Raja, the Lord of
    Death, will shine forth on the Chony id-Bar do. The largest of the bodies of Dharma-Raja, the Lord of
    Death, equaling the heavens [in vastness]; the intermediate, Mt. Meru; the smallest, eighteen times
    one's own body, will come filling the world-systems. They will come having their upper teeth biting
    the nether lip; their eyes glassy; their hairs tied up on the top of the head; big-bellied, narrow-wasted;
    holding a [karmic] record-board in the hand; giving utterance from their mouth to sounds of 'Strike!
    Slay!', licking [human] brain, drinking blood, tearing heads from corpses, tearing out [the] hearts: thus
    will [they] come, filling the worlds.

    O nobly-born, when such thought-forms emanate, be thou not afraid, nor terrified; the body which now
    thou possessest being a mental-body of [karmic] propensities, though slain and chopped [to bits],
    cannot die. Because thy body is, in reality, one of voidness, thou needest not fear. The [bodies of the]
    Lord of Death, too, are emanations from the radiances of thine own intellect; they are not constituted
    of matter; voidness cannot injure voidness. Beyond the emanations of thine own intellectual faculties,
    externally, the Peaceful and the Wrathful Ones, the Blood-Drinking Ones, the Various-Headed Ones,
    the rainbow lights, the terrifying forms of the lord of Death, exist not in reality: of this, there is no
    doubt. Thus, knowing this, all the fear and terror is self-dissipated; and, merging in the state of at-one-
    ment, Buddhahood is obtained.

    If thou recognizest in that manner, exerting thy faith and affection towards the tutelary deities and
    believing that they have come to receive thee amidst the ambuscades of the Bardo, think, 'I take
    refuge [in them]'; and remember the Precious Trinity, exerting towards them [the Trinity] fondness and
    faith. Whosoever thine own tutelary deity may be, recollect now; [and] calling him by name, pray thus:

    '[Alas!], wandering am I in the Bardo; run to my rescue;
    Uphold me by thy grace, O Precious Tutelary!'


    Calling upon the name of thine own guru, pray thus:

    '[Alas!] wandering am I in the Bardo; rescue me!
    O let not thy grace forsake me!'


    Have faith in the Blood-Drinking Deities, too, and offer up this prayer:

    Alas! when [I am] wandering in the Sangsara, through force of overpowering illusions,

    On the light-path of the abandonment of fright, fear, and awe,

    May the bands of the Bhagavans, the Peaceful and Wrathful Ones, lead [me],

    May the bands of the Wrathful Goddess Rich in Space be [my] rear-guard,

    And save me from the fearful ambuscades of the Bardo,

    And place me in the state of the Perfectly-Enlightened Buddhas.

    When wandering alone, separated from dear friends,

    When the void forms of one's own thoughts are shining here,

    May the Buddhas, exerting the force of their grace,

    Cause not to come the fear, awe, and terror in the Bardo.

    When the five bright Wisdom-Lights are shining here,

    May recognition come without dread and without awe;

    When the divine bodies of the Peaceful and the Wrathful are shining here;

    May the assurance of fearlessness be obtained and the Bardo be recognized.

    When, by the power of evil karma, misery is being tasted,

    May the tutelary deities dissipate the misery;

    When the natural sound of Reality is reverberating [like] a thousand thunders,


    May they be transmuted into the sounds of the Six Syllables.
    When unprotected, karma having to be followed here,
    I beseech the Gracious Compassionate [One] to protect me;
    When suffering miseries of karmic propensities here,
    May the blissfulness of the Clear Light dawn;
    May the Five Elements not rise up as enemies;

    But may I behold the realms of the Five Orders of the Enlightened Ones.'


    Thus, in earnest faith and humility, offer up the prayer; whereby all fears will vanish and Buddhahood
    in the Sambhoga-Kaya will undoubtedly be won: important is this. Being undistracted, repeat it in that
    manner, three of [even] seven times.

    However heavy the evil karma may be and however weak the remaining karma may be, it is no
    possible that liberation will not be obtained [if one but recognize]. If, nevertheless, despite everything
    done in these [stages of the Bardo], recognition is still not brought about, then — there being danger of
    one's wandering further, into the third Bardo, called the Sidpa Bardo — the setting-face-to-face for that
    will be shown in detail hereinafter.


    [The Conclusion, Showing the Fundamental Importance of the Bardo Teachings]

    Whatever the religious practices of any one may have been — whether extensive or limited — during
    the moments of death various misleading illusions occur; and hence this Thodol is indispensable. To
    those who have meditated much, the real Truth dawneth as soon as the body and consciousness-
    principle part. The acquiring of experience while living is important: they who have [then] recognized
    [the true nature of] their own being, and thus have had some experience, obtain great power during the
    Bardo of the Moments of Death, when the Clear Light dawneth.

    Again, the meditation on the deities of the Mystic Path of the Mantra, [both in the] visualizing and the
    perfecting stages, while living, will be of great influence when the peaceful and wrathful visions dawn
    on the Chonyid Bardo. Thus the training in this Bardo being of particular importance even while
    living, hold to it, read it, commit it to memory, bear it in mind properly, read it regularly thrice; let the
    words and the meanings be very clear; it should be so that the words and the meanings will not be
    forgotten even though a hundred executioners were pursuing [thee].

    It is called the Great Liberation by Hearing, because even those who have committed the five
    boundless sins are sure to be liberated if they hear it by the path of the ear. Therefore read it in the
    midst of vast congregations. Disseminate it. Through having heard it once, even though one do not
    comprehend it, it will be remembered in the Intermediate State without a word being omitted, for the
    intellect become th ninefold more lucid [there]. Hence it should be proclaimed in the ears of all living
    person; it should be read over the pillows of all persons who are ill; it should be read at the side of all
    corpses: it should be spread broadcast.

    Those who meet with this [doctrine] are indeed fortunate. Save for them who have accumulated much
    merit and absolved many obscurations, difficult is it to meet with it. Even when met with, difficult is it
    to comprehend it. Liberation will be won through simply not disbelieving it upon hearing it. Therefore
    treat this [doctrine] very dearly: it is the essence of all doctrines.

    The Setting-Face-to-Face while experiencing Reality in the Intermediate State, called 'The Teaching
    Which Liberateth By Merely Being Heard And That Which Liberateth By Merely Being Attached', is
    finished.

  • Love and compassion
     Reply #103 - April 28, 2017, 07:35 AM

    A guy challenged Dr Zakir Naik by Buddhism (Hindi/Urdu) - ...

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7w1ylZHh6Yw

    Buddha in the Quran - Dr. Israr Ahmed & Dr. Zakir Naik - ...

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kKoedH9TT20

    Dr Zakir Naik Bayan in Hindi ~ A very Interesting Speech About Hindu Religion
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RygqsJJbpUw

    Yogi Aaditya Nath Ka Sawal aur Dr Zakir Naik Ka Jawab PART- 1.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ioT13ofohjU
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #104 - April 28, 2017, 01:04 PM

    Who is Haile Selassie?

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7K3UVdX92iA

    "God will say, "O Jesus, son of Mary, did you say to the people, 'Make me and my mother gods beside God?" Qur'an 5:116

    "I told them clearly that I am a man...and that they should never make a mistake in assuming or pretending that the human being is emanated from a deity." - Haile Selassie
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #105 - April 28, 2017, 02:37 PM

    Who is Haile Selassie?  Lij Teferi Makonnen

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7K3UVdX92iA



    Hail kingLij Tafar Makonnen

    ps:  click the picture download pdf file and read it

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #106 - April 28, 2017, 03:48 PM

    https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=DXpADdYpLsI

    The Categorical Im-Pratchettive

    I didn't know Pratchett personally, although I did meet him a few times at publishers' dos, bookshop events and the like; and once I was on a BBC Radio 2 bookish roundtable with Simon Mayo, China Miéville and him. And I know people who did know him, with varying degrees of intimacy. When they talk about him they do so with love, and loyalty to his memory; but one thing that comes up is how unlike the cuddly humorous old granddad popular-culture version of him he was in life. He was, I have heard more than one person say, capable of real and focused anger. Injustice and unfairness made him angry. There are many things to say about his novels (and to be clear, before I go any further, I should say I consider him clearly one of the most significant anglophone writers of his generation) but the two things that stand-out for me most are: his extraordinary command of comic prose, a very difficult idiom to master and doubly difficult to maintain at length; and the repeated and unmissable ethical dimension to his writing. He was a moral writer above all, arguably even before he was a comic one, and certainly (I think) before he was a worldbuilder, or a creator of character, or a popular metaphysician about gods or existence or death or anything like that; important thought all those elements were to his writing. Nor can his moral purpose, and his anger, be separated out. As Wyrd Sisters notes of Granny Weatherwax:

    Granny Weatherwax was often angry. She considered it one of her strong points. Genuine anger was one of the world's greatest creative forces. But you had to learn how to control it. That didn't mean you let it trickle away. It meant you dammed it, carefully, let it develop a working head, let it drown whole valleys of the mind and then, just when the whole structure was about to collapse, opened a tiny pipeline at the base and let the iron-hard stream of wrath power the turbines of revenge.

    I chatted with Pratchett briefly after the Radio 2 thing, and told him that I'd always been struck that Granny Weatherwax's ethical philosophy, as articulated in Carpe Jugulum (1998)—“sin is when you treat people as things. Including yourself. That's what sin is”—was essentially the same as Immanuel Kant's ethical philosophy. Kant grounded his ethics in the idea that we must always treat other people as ends in themselves, and never as means to an end. Pratchett looked at me quizzically. ‘Can't say I've read a whole lot of Kant,’ he told me. But he did say it was interesting.

    It might, I suppose, look wrongheaded to call Pratchett's ethics ‘Kantian’. Kant's most famous moral concept is his ‘categorical imperative’: act only according to that maxim whereby you can, at the same time, will that it should become a universal law. The belief that individual behaviour must be governed by rules that pre-exist the situation in which the individual must act, is called deontology. Not so good as aeontology; rather better than effontology; and Kant is often described as a deontologist. Not everybody is convinced by deontology (many prefer consequentialist moral theories). Indeed critiques of Kantian moral theory stretch all the way back to the man himself. Hegel famously thought the categorical imperative empty, John Stuart Mill described it as a merely formal frame, and Schopenhauer attacked it on three grounds. First, he argued, it merely restates the ancient ‘golden rule’ that you shouldn't do to others what you wouldn't want done to yourself, and is therefore redundant. Secondly, Schopenhauer considered it egoistic because its universality includes the person who both gives and obeys the command. And thirdly, he described the categorical imperative as cold and dead ‘because it is to be followed without love, feeling, or inclination, but merely out of a sense of duty.’

    More broadly, we might say: there is something over-neat about Kant's systems, something fussily precise, pseudo-mathematical and absolutist, that some people just don't like. It's the kind of metaphysics of morals an intelligent computer might concoct, people say. Moral decisions (we might think) are made by real, living, breathing human beings, in real, often pressing situations. Human life is messy, unpredictable, often awkward, and human beings are not programmed like computers. This last notion—I mean, the messiness of humanity, the way it cannot be neatly fitted into any regular grid—is a profoundly Pratchettian perspective, of course. His glory as a writer is his sense of the sprawling variety and multifariousness of people. Perhaps calling him Kantian does a sort of violence to Pratchett's ethical vision.

    We could, for instance, argue that the most Kantian, in the sense of the most universalising, creatures in all of Discworld are the Auditors of Reality. They first appear in Reaper Man (1991), where we're told they ‘see to it that gravity operates and that time stays separate from space’ (and where we learn they have conversations with one another without speaking: ‘They didn't need to speak. They just changed reality so that they had spoken’. Which I've always thought was a very cool notion). The Auditors hate mess and unpredictability and they particularly hate life because it is messy and unpredictable. They would much prefer a cosmos made up of lifeless balls of rock circling stars in mathematically predictable orbits. Indeed, they would like to eliminate humanity, although they can't simply do so because it is ‘against the Rules’ (the Auditors can't break the Rules because, in a certain sense, they are the Rules). They can use proxies, though, and do so to try and extirpate the messiness of life. This drives the plots in Hogfather (1996, where they try to eliminate the titular Santa-Claus-alike because he's so messy and irrational) and Thief of Time (2001, where their plan is to stop time and so deprive humanity of its necessary element). In terms of sheer dedication to this mass genocide, the Auditors are perhaps the most evil characters in the Pratchettverse; although in fact we're told that they lack the imagination to be truly evil.

    But this analysis, I'd argue, misrepresents Kant, and so misses something really important about Pratchett's moral vision. It's true that for Kant morality must be derived by what he calls pure practical reason; that is, it can't be based on the selfish or partial reasons people might come up with for their actions, what he calls ‘dependent incentives’. Pure reasoning chooses actions because those actions are good in themselves; good without any ulterior justification, good because derivative of transcendental law. But if that sounds inhuman, it shouldn't. Kant argues this not because he wants to subordinate human will to some tyrannical universal necessity, but on the contrary because this seems to him the only way to ensure that individual people treat other individual people as ends in themselves, rather than as means to an end.

    That's so for the following reason. To choose to act in a way incompatible with the categorical imperative, Kant thinks, is to elevate your own motivations over the needs of others. Put it this way: morality is the business of deciding which actions are permissible and which are impermissible. When you make a choice to act, you are in effect indicating you believe what you are doing to be permissible. If you steal, then in effect you're giving permission to others to steal from you. If you kill another person, then you’re giving permission to others that they can kill you. And when we put it like that, we can see (it's the first of Schopenhauer's objections, noted above) that the categorical imperative is a reciprocal rather than an absolute ethical frame. And by universalising this individual recipcrocity, Kant gives it rational and categorical force.

    And the sheer rational force of acting ethically is something to which Pratchett often returns. In Maskerade (1995), Weatherwax reminisces:

    ‘There was a wicked ole witch once called Black Aliss. She was an unholy terror. There's never been one worse or more powerful. Until now. Because I could spit in her eye and steal her teeth, see. Because she didn't know Right from Wrong, so she got all twisted up, and that was the end of her. The trouble is, you see, that if you do know Right from Wrong, you can't choose Wrong. You just can't do it and live. So if I was a bad witch I could make Mister Salzella's muscles turn against his bones and break them where he stood ... if I was bad. I could do things inside his head, change the shape he thinks he is, and he'd be down on what had been his knees and begging to be turned into a frog ... if I was bad. I could leave him with a mind like a scrambled egg, listening to colors and hearing smells...if I was bad. Oh yes.’ There was another sigh, deeper and more heartfelt.

    ‘But I can't do none of that stuff. That wouldn't be Right.’

    Choice seems much less open-ended when you think rationally about right and wrong. Weatherwax does not claim to have all the answers; but she does understand that ‘right’ is not the same thing as ‘nice’, and that doing the right thing very rarely coincides with doing the popular thing. That's the main plot of Witches Abroad (1991), in fact. Indeed, it's the main plot of many of his novels.

    Those Schopenhauerian objections can come to seem, when we reconsider them from, as it were, a Pratchettian point of view, features rather than bugs. Is the categorical imperative egoistic in a ‘bad’ way, because its universality includes the person who both gives and obeys the command? Or on the contrary, mightn't it be egotistical in a ‘good’ way, because ethics must be grounded in the individual psychology of ego and super-ego (I'm being anachronistic when I put it like that, I know) if it is to have any purchase on real life? Pratchett's strongest characters, in the sense of most memorable, most loved, and most often the bellwethers for the novels' ethical dramas, are also his strongest characters in terms of ego. ‘Granny Weatherwax was not lost,’ we're told in Wyrd Sisters. ‘She wasn't the kind of person who ever became lost. It was just that, at the moment, while she knew exactly where SHE was, she didn't know the position of anywhere else.’ That's both funny, and a neat piece of characterisation, although it describes the sort of person we might find rather alarming in real life. Sam Vimes has some of this quality, too: a grounded, or centred, sense of his own grasp on right versus wrong, whatever other insecurities or insufficiencies he might admit to. And Tiffany Aching, despite her youth, likewise. The ‘ego’ here means: Pratchett's fondness for strongly rendered, pungent and memorable and positive characters. The really telling thing, I think, is how rarely he does the opposite: how undersupplied the Discworld books are with full-on moustache-twirling melodramatic villains. That's sometimes seen as a problem. Amanda Craig argues that Pratchett supplies ‘a lifelong source of pleasure and happiness,’ but, she thinks, ‘this comes at the price of not showing us “the darkness”’.

    There is a bullying father here, and spite and sudden death, but none of it disturbs. Other great fantasy authors from Tolkien to Robin Hobb leave us in no doubt that the torture, rape and murder in their worlds, described in chilling detail, are real and terrible, like the lust for power and sex that inspires them: but the filth of the city of Ankh-Morpork is down to dirt and poor plumbing. We are so used to the way George RR Martin or Joe Abercrombie or even Ursula le Guin show us fantasy worlds riven with cruelty, that perhaps the kindliness of Discworld is more subversive than it seems. It is, in essence, a humanist’s creation in which laughter, as Nabokov said, is the best pesticide, and humour as potent as swords.

    There might be something in this objection, I suppose; although I'd tend to see it as, again, one of the strengths of Pratchett's writing, grounded in his habit of ethically universalising the moral particular. What I mean is: rather than seeing the categorical imperative as a top-down quasi-tyrannical imposition of moral order on the universe, we could see it as exactly the opposite. After all, it takes as axiomatic that nobody is outside the moral world—that is to say, it fundamentally repudiates one of the oldest moral fix-ups in human history, the one where the world is divided into ‘us’, who deserve to be treated ethically, and ‘them’, the outgroup, the Others (the Jews, the slavs, the Blacks, the barbarians, the Muslims, the poor, the women, the gays, all those many varieties of homines sacri) who fall outside of the protection of justice, who can be treated in ways beyond the ambit of morals. Kant isn't having that, and neither is Pratchett. This manifests, for Pratchett, in a refusal to take the dramatically easy way of demonising one or other outgroup. Really, nobody is beyond the pale in Discworld. No group is demonised, actual demons least of all. This same impulse manifests for Kant in an ethical rule that obtains categorically, not only to those like us, or whom we like.

    This is also why Schopenhauer's third objection to the Kantian categorical imperative, as a cold and dead matter of obedience to mere duty, misses the mark; as a criticism of Kant (I think, though it would take a lot longer than I have here to demonstrate why) and certainly as a criticism of Pratchett. Pratchett's anger was hot, and his humour was continually and wonderfully alive; and that heat and that liveliness are what power his ethical vision. And one final point occurs to me: Pratchett's strategy for communicating ethically with his readers was fundamentally story-based: he tells us stories, and we are amused, and intrigued, and moved, and in that process we are called-forth into actualised ethical situations, made to think through the business of what it means to act well and to act badly, to consider consequences and otherness and so on.  I suppose it's true that actual Kantian moral philosophers are thin on the ground nowadays, but one of the most important and celebrated interventions into ethical thought of the last ten years or so was Barbara Herman's Moral Literacy (2008), which is not only thoroughly Kantian, but which explores how morals are a mode of existential literacy, something we learn and practice, and something for which stories are the ideal mode. Herman doesn't discuss Pratchett, but she could easily have done. Doing the right thing, Pratchett says, over and over, is not a passionless matter of obeying an inhuman universal duty; it is always particular, always passionate, and above all always funny.

    source
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #107 - April 28, 2017, 06:06 PM

    So  as usual  when I am tired  I scan news .. and finger on keyboard often goes to those three letters   BBC...  and here is what I read that is relevant  to CEMB readers

    The news with this heading  A silent desert city Madain Saleh.  and these  wondrous ancient city   pictures says







    Quote
    ......Madain Saleh isn’t as well-known as Petra, but the Nabateans’ second-largest city played a crucial role in their mysterious empire. in 106 AD, the Nabatean Empire was annexed by the Romans, and Red Sea routes overtook land trading routes. Nabatean cities were no longer centres of trade, and so began their decline and ultimate abandonment.
    Tucked away in the desert, today Madain Saleh is deserted, silent and stunningly well-preserved. Much of the city still lies under layers of sand.


    What has been uncovered is a vast necropolis of more than 131 immense tombs. At first, their sheer scale and number was overwhelming. But as we looked closer, the Nabateans' artistry was revealed through carvings of soaring eagles, imposing sphinxes and feathered griffins, not to mention intricate inscriptions. We stopped in front of one tomb, whose inscription translated as being for ‘Hany son of Tansy… and descendants’, and ended with a date and name: ‘April 31AD… carved by Hoor… the sculptor’.

    Tomb inscriptions provided insight into the names, relationships, occupations, laws and gods of the people who lived here. The Nabateans left no extensive written history, so these texts, unique to Madain Saleh, are extraordinarily valuable

    .
    Quote
    Ahmed explained that the inscriptions were written in Aramaic, an ancient Semitic language and the lingua franca of the Middle East at that time. Aramaic would have been essential knowledge for business and commerce communication, although the Nabateans also used an early form of Arabic – traces of which Ahmed pointed out in the inscriptions.


    Quote
    ..........we climbed back into our van and headed northeast to Jabal Ithlib, a monumental rocky outcrop believed to have been a religious sanctuary for the worship of the Nabatean god Dushara, Lord of the Mountains.


    Muslims will not come here because they believe the site was cursed when the Nabatean’s refused to renounce their gods in favour of Islam, and tourist visas for non-Muslims to enter Saudi Arabia are notoriously difficult to obtain. It’s the very absence of foot traffic, as well as Saudi Arabia’s dry desert climate, that’s has kept Madain Saleh so intact  

    I am glad to read that  and as I love living in mountains far from CONCRETE JUNGLES .. I like that mountain god "Dushara" Lord of the Mountains..

    well I only put some nuggets there..read it all at the link
     

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #108 - April 28, 2017, 08:10 PM

    https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=DUxRrVzkIkE
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #109 - April 29, 2017, 01:59 AM

    Michael Muhammad Knight
    MICHAEL MUHAMMAD KNIGHT
    May 13 2014, 10:10am

    Harvard should learn that religious freedom is not just for the center, but also the margins.


    Following Catholic uproar, a proposed Satanic mass at Harvard has been canceled. The mass was going to be put on by the Satanic Temple, the group who also has plans to plant a Baphomet figure on the front lawn of the Oklahoma Statehouse. Despite the fact that the Harvard Extension School Cultural Studies Club dropped its sponsorship, the group still managed to have an unsanctioned "black mass" at Harvard Square's Hong Kong restaurant and lounge. What bothers me the most about the official quashing of the Satanic Temple's mass by Harvard is that it is being hailed as a victory for religious tolerance—it's not. Instead, it's a case of a small group getting bullied into submission because it offended a big religion.

    In an editorial for the Harvard Crimson, Francis X. Clooney, Harvard professor and director of its Center for the Study of World Religions, expresses concern for what he calls this proposed “disconcerting incident.” He presents the elements in satanic ritual that invert and “blaspheme” Catholic sacraments as a potential slippery slope, asking, “What’s next? The endeavor ‘to learn and experience the history of different cultural practices’ might in another year lead to historical reenactments of anti-Semitic or racist ceremonies… or parodies that trivialize Native American heritage or other revivals of cultural and religious insult.”


    Clooney’s nightmare scenario ignores one important question, that of institutional privilege: While racism is an oppressors’ power play that always moves from the top down, Satanism critiques a target immeasurably more powerful than itself. For Catholics at Harvard to complain about Satanists offending them is like white people complaining about Louis Farrakhan’s “reverse racism.”

    In addition to his positions at Harvard, Clooney is also a Catholic priest. I know the history of Catholicism in America, and am sure that Clooney does as well. There was a time when Catholics were persecuted, reviled, and marked as the definitive “un-American” religion. Within the developing field of religious studies, the privileged position of liberal 19th-century Protestantism as “real” religion in its most evolved form also led to unfair anti-Catholic prejudice within the academy. Catholicism has struggled in the United States for recognition both as authentically Christian and authentically American. 

    Times have changed, so I’d like to tell Dr. Clooney how the American religious landscape looks in 2014. Dr. Clooney, I am a Muslim. As a Muslim in the cliché context of “post-9/11 America,” I encounter anti-Muslim discourses that use the same arguments that you have employed against Satanists. In more than one American city, Islamophobes have opposed the establishment of mosques by claiming that Muslims are intolerant and incapable of coexisting with other communities, or even that Islam is not a “real” religion and therefore cannot be entitled to the same defense of its freedoms. In the case of the so-called “Ground Zero Mosque,” people argued against the presence of a Muslim community simply on the basis that it would hurt their feelings.

    As a Muslim, I have to support the Satanists. Public revulsion of Muslims in this country is so popular that I have no choice but to stand with religions that are marked as ugly, offensive, and intolerant. Rather than join the anti-Satanist outrage and try to convince Christians that Muslims deserve to be included as “children of Abraham” or whatever, I would suggest that Muslims take a radical stand on behalf of the religious freedoms that we claim for ourselves. The people who wish to insult Muslims are not members of ridiculed fringe groups. They are not just isolated Qur’an-burning pastors, but extraordinarily well-funded and networked activists. Islamophobia is so mainstream that as Muslims, we must support freedom for all marginalized religions, because too many people have marginalized us.

    I have no doubt that in his commitment to religious pluralism and interfaith understanding, Clooney supports the inclusion of Muslims as full participants in American life. His work in comparative theology, which focuses on dialogue between Catholicism and Hinduism, reveals great insight as to how we can be enriched by traditions that are not our own. Unfortunately, the projects of interfaith dialogue tend to privilege old religions over new ones, and big ones over small ones. Christian-Muslim dialogue, for example, isn’t typically going to invite Mormons or Ahmadiyya to the table.

    In his treatment of Satanic mass, Clooney’s playing an authenticity game in which privileged religions get to name the terms by which something counts as “religion,” and respect for the sacred thus means respecting what privileged religions mark as sacred. I have seen this game played with destructive consequences for the Five Percenter community. In US prisons, Five Percenters have been historically denied the freedoms of conscience and assembly that are routinely protected for adherents to other traditions. Warith Deen Mohammed, one of the most important Sunni leaders in American Muslim history, endorsed the prison industry’s characterization of Five Percenters as a “dangerous” and “corrupt” group. Incarcerated Five Percenters have been thrown into solitary confinement for no other reason than their personal conviction. Their right to assemble has been taken from them and the lessons that they study have been designated as contraband. Outside of the prison system, Five Percenters have been occasionally denied the right to change their legal names to Allah, with at least one judge stating that for a man to name himself Allah is inappropriate and even blasphemous.

    In prejudice against Five Percenters from both Muslims and non-Muslims, broader US Islamophobia, and Clooney’s attack on the Harvard black mass, we find the same mistake: A general failure to ask these people what their outrageous, offensive beliefs, and behaviors actually mean to them. Reducing the Satanic mass to a parody of the Catholic mass, he assumes that the Satanists involved must have no personal conviction that might endow the act with meaning, and discusses the act without any engagement of the human beings for whom it matters.  In his editorial, they remain faceless, nameless, and voiceless.


    So who are these people? The Satanists involved in the canceled black mass do not believe in Satan as a supernatural entity. For the Satanic Temple, Satan is more of a singular embodiment of their mission to advocate religious tolerance and pluralism. For them, the black mass is a kind of protest against the oppressiveness of religion. Despite the absence of a higher power, the radical atheism they practice is a religious conviction and no less entitled to public expression or ritual performance than the positions of the “one true church.”

    Clooney justifies his concern by pointing out that the black mass might be hurtful to a “living faith practice celebrated each day in congregations that include Harvard faculty, staff, and students.” In an official statement on behalf of the university, Harvard president Drew Faust expressed an intention to attend a Eucharistic Benediction at St. Paul’s Church on campus “in order to join others in reaffirming our respect for the Catholic faith at Harvard and to demonstrate that the most powerful response to offensive speech is not censorship, but reasoned discourse and robust dissent.” For both Clooney and Faust, Catholicism’s dignity must be protected because Catholics have a place at Harvard, while Satanism gets casually reviled because of course, Satanists have no place.

    What Clooney and Faust miss is that some of us find claims of Jesus Christ as the only means of salvation from eternal torture to be incredibly offensive. Any tradition whose advocates promise to be exclusive possessors of the capital-T “Truth” is going to bother someone. Should all religious discourse that claims supreme truth-making power over other religions disappear from the public? I get that Harvard Divinity School’s preferred religiosity tends to go soft in this regard: At Div School, folks don’t go much for the hellfire talk or claims of superiority. Maybe there’s a Div School version of Satanism that Clooney could go for. Or not, but who cares—Clooney’s personal taste does not provide the measurement of Satanism’s legitimacy.

    It would be great if religions can always play nice. When they can’t, I am less concerned with Satanism’s alleged power to make Harvard unsafe for Catholics than the problem of big and powerful religions enforcing their privilege by stomping on small and powerless ones. This is where Clooney gets it wrong in a big way. There has never been—and I am guessing that there will never be—an openly self-identified Satanist with Clooney’s institutional power at Harvard. Because I care about religious freedom not only for the center, but also the margins, count this Muslim with the Satanists.

    Michael Muhammad Knight graduated from Harvard with a Master of Theological Studies (MTS) degree in 2011, and is presently a PhD student in Islamic Studies at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill. He is the author of nine books, including Tripping with Allah: Islam, Drugs, and Writing. Follow Michael on Twitter.



    I don't want to be good anymore. I want to be right.
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #110 - April 29, 2017, 04:15 PM


    Sacred Texts -- Zoroastrianism 
    The Zend Avesta, Part I (SBE04), James Darmesteter, tr. [1880], at sacred-texts.com

    p. 1

    VENDÎDÂD.

    FARGARD I.

    THIS chapter is an enumeration of sixteen lands created by Ahura Mazda, and of as many plagues created in opposition by Angra Mainyu.

    Many attempts have been made, not only to identify these sixteen lands, but also to draw historical conclusions from their order of succession, as representing the actual order of the migrations and settlements of the old Iranian tribes 1. But there is nothing in the text that would authorise us to look to it even for legendary records, much less for real history. We have here nothing more than a geographical description of Iran, such as might be expected in a religious work like the Vendîdâd, that is to say, one that contains mythical lands as well as real countries. It is not easy to decide with perfect certainty, in every case, whether we have to do with a land of the former or of the latter kind, owing partly to our deficient knowledge of the geography of ancient Iran, partly to the fact that names, originally belonging to mythical lands, are often in later times attached to real ones.

    Of these sixteen lands there are certainly nine which have really existed, and of which we know the geographical position, as we are able to follow their names from the records of the Achæmenian kings or the works of classical writers down to the map of modern Iran. They are the following:--

    p. 2

    ZEND NAME.

    OLD PERSIAN.

    GREEK.

    MODERN NAME.

    Sughdha (2)

    Suguda

    Σογδιανή

    (Samarkand)

    Môuru (3)

    Margu

    Μαργιανή

    Merv

    Bâkhdhi (4)

    Bâkhtri

    Βάκτρα

    Balkh

    Harôyu (6)

    Haraiva

    Ἄρεια

    Hari-rûd

    Vehrkâna (9)

    Varkâna

    Ὑρκανία

    Gorgân

    Harahvaiti (16)

    Harauvati

    Ἀράχωτος

    Harût

    Haêtumant (11)

     

    Ἐτύμανδρος

    Helmend

    Ragha (12)

    Raga

    Ῥαγαί

    Raï

    Hapta hindu (15)

    Hindavas

    Ἰνδοί

    (Pañgâb)

    [paragraph continues]The real existence of Nisâya (5) is certain, although its position cannot be exactly determined (see the note to § Cool.

    For the other lands we are confined for information to the Pahlavi Commentary. Kakhra (13) is only transliterated, whether the name was then too much known to require any further explanation or too little to allow of any. Urva (Cool is described as being Masân ('the land of Masân' or 'the land of the Great'), a name which applied, in the Sassanian ages, to the land around Ispahân (Firdausi, ed. Mohl, V, 270).

    For 'Varena, the four-cornered' (14), the Commentary hesitates between the Padashkhvârgar mountains (the Elborz) and Kirmân, a hesitation easily accounted for by the fact that Varena is the seat of the struggle between Azis Dahâka and Thraêtaona, between the storm serpent and the storm god, and was formerly 'the four-sided Heaven' (see Introd. IV, 12, 23). Modern tradition decides in favour of Padashkhvârgar, probably because the serpent was at last bound to Demavand, the highest peak in that chain. The claims of Kirmân were probably founded on the popular etymology of its name, 'the land of snakes.'

    'Vaêkereta, of the evil shadows' (Cool, is identified with Kapul (Cabul); whether rightly or wrongly, we are unable to decide; yet, as it is spoken of only as the seat of the adventures of Keresâspa (see Introd. IV, 21), it may be suspected that this assimilation rests merely on the fact that, in later tradition, the legend of Keresâspa was localised in the table-land of Peshyansâi, in Kabulistan (Bund. XXX).

    In the enumeration there is no apparent order whatever, and Ormazd, in his creations, seems to travel all over the map, forward and backward, without the slightest regard to the cardinal points. Yet, the starting point and the final point have not been arbitrarily chosen: the first land created was 'the Airyana Vaêgô by the Vanguhi Dâitya,' and the last was the land by the Rangha. Now,

    p. 3

    the Vanguhi and the Rangha were originally the celestial rivers that came down from heaven (as two heavenly Gaṅgâs) to surround the earth, the one in the east, the other in the west (Bund. XX); this is why the creation begins with a land by the Vanguhi and ends with a land by the Rangha.

    In the Sassanian ages, when the Tigris was definitively the border of Iran in the west, the Rangha was identified with it, and the sixteenth land is accordingly described in the Commentary as being Arvastân-i-Rûm, or Roman Mesopotamia. But all the Avesta passages in which the Rangha is cited refer to its mythical nature, as the river in the far-off horizon, as the surrounding Okeanos, and, now and then, still resembling its Vedic homonym, the Rasâ, as the river that divides the gods from the fiends.

    The first land, the Airyana Vaêgô by the Vanguhi Dâitya, remained to the last a mythical region. It was originally the abode of Yima and of the righteous, that is to say, a particular form of paradise (see Introd. IV, 38, and Farg. II). Later on, it was looked for in the countries north of Adarbaijan, probably in order that it should be as near as possible to the seat of the Zoroastrian religion, yet without losing its supernatural character by the counter-evidence of facts. This brought about the division of the Vanguhi Dâitya into two rivers: as the Airyana Vaêgô was localised in the country north of Adarbaijan, the river in it must become identified with the Araxes (Aras); but, at the same time, it continued to surround the world eastward under the name of Veh (Vanguhi), which was the Sassanian name of the Oxus--Indus 1. It seems that in the time of Herodotus, the Araxes and the Oxus were considered one and the same river 2, as the Oxus and the Indus were later on; this would account for his strange statement that the Araxes, which is confessedly with him the Oxus or Yaxartes, springs from the land of the Matianians, like the Gyndes, and flows eastwards (I, 202; IV, 40; cf. III, 36; IV, 11); and, at the same time, this would account both for how the Airyana Vaêgô could be localised in the basin of the Araxes and how the Oxus could flow eastwards to fall into the Arabian sea 3.

    p. 4

    It follows hence that no historical conclusions can be drawn from this description: it was necessary that it should begin with the Vanguhi and end with the Rangha. To look to it for an account of geographical migrations, is converting cosmology into history.

    Of the counter-creations of Angra Mainyu there is little to be said: they are different vices and plagues, which are generally unconnected with the country to the creation of which they answer. Some of them are expressed by ἅπαξ λεγόμενα, the meaning of which is doubtful or unknown.

    If we assume that only lands belonging to the Iranian world were admitted into the list, the mention of the Seven Rivers would indicate that the first Fargard was not composed earlier than the time when the basin of the Indus became a part of Iran, that is, not earlier than the reign of Darius the First.

    1. Ahura Mazda 1 spake unto Spitama 2 Zarathustra 3, saying:

    2. I have made every land dear to its dwellers, even though it had no charms whatever in it 4: had I not made every land dear to its dwellers, even though it had no charms whatever in it, then the whole living world would have invaded the Airyana Vaêgô 5.

    3 (5). The first of the good lands and countries

    p. 5

    which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the Airyana Vaêgô 1, by the good river Dâitya 2.

    Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created by his witchcraft the serpent in the river 3 and winter, a work of the Daêvas 4.

    4 (9). There are ten winter months there, two summer months 5; and those are cold for the waters 6, cold for the earth, cold for the trees 7. Winter falls there, with the worst of its plagues.

    5 (13). The second of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the plains 8 in Sughdha 9.

    p. 6

    Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created by his witchcraft the fly Skaitya 1, which brings death to the cattle.

    6 (17). The third of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the strong, holy Môuru 2.

    Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created by his witchcraft sinful lusts 3.

    7 (21). The fourth of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the beautiful Bâkhdhi 4 with high-lifted banners.

    Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created by his witchcraft the Bravara 5.

    8 (25). The fifth of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was Nisâya 6, that lies between Môuru and Bâkhdhi.

    Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created by his witchcraft the sin of unbelief 7.

    9 (29). The sixth of the good lands and countries

    p. 7

    which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was Harôyu 1 with its lake 2.

    Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created by his witchcraft the stained mosquito 3.

    10 (33). The seventh of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was Vaêkereta 4, of the evil shadows.

    Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created by his witchcraft the Pairika Knãthaiti, who clave unto Keresâspa 5.

    11 (37). The eighth of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was Urva of the rich pastures 6.

    Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created by his witchcraft the sin of pride 7.

    12 (41). The ninth of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda) created, was Khnenta in Vehrkâna 8.

    Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created by his witchcraft a sin for which there is no atonement, the unnatural sin 9.

    13 (45). The tenth of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda created, was the beautiful Harahvaiti 10.

    p. 8

    Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created by his witchcraft a sin for which there is no atonement, the burying of the dead 1.

    14 (49). The eleventh of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the bright, glorious Haêtumant 2.

    Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created by his witchcraft the evil witchcraft of the Yâtus 3.

    15 (53). And this is how the Yâtu's nature shows itself: it shows itself by the look 4; and then, whenever the wizard goes and howls forth his spells 5, most deadly works of witchcraft go forth 6.

    16 (59). The twelfth of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was Ragha of the three races 7.

    Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created by his witchcraft the sin of utter unbelief 8.

    17 (63). The thirteenth of the good lands and

    p. 9

    countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the strong, holy Kakhra 1.

    Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created by his witchcraft a sin for which there is no atonement, the burning of corpses 2.

    18 (67). The fourteenth of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the four-cornered Varena 3, for which was born Thraêtaona, who smote Azis Dahâka.

    Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created by his witchcraft abnormal issues in women 4 and the oppression of foreign rulers 5.

    19 (72). The fifteenth of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the Seven Rivers 6.

    Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created by his witchcraft abnormal issues in women and excessive heat.

    20 (76). The sixteenth of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the land by the floods of the Rangha 7, where people live without a head 8.

    p. 10

    Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created by his witchcraft winter, a work of the Daêvas 1.

    21 (81). There are still other lands and countries, beautiful and deep, desirable and bright, and thriving.

    Footnotes

    1:1 Rhode, Die heilige Sage des Zendvolks, p. 61; Heeren, Ideen zur Geschichte, I, p. 498; Lassen, Indische Alterthumskunde I, p. 526; Haug in Bunsen's work, Aegypten's Stellung, V, 2nd part, p. 104; Kiepert, Monatsberichte der Berliner Akademie, 1856, p. 621.--New light was thrown on this record by M. Bréal in his paper 'De la géographie de l’Avesta' (in the Mêlanges de mythologie et de linguistique, p. 187 seq.)

    3:1 The Oxus and the Indus were believed to be one and the same river (Bund. l.c.; see Garrez, journal Asiatique, 1869, II, 195 seq.)

    3:2 Running under the Caspian sea, as Arethusa runs under the Sicilian sea and the Rangha itself under the Persian gulf (Bund. XX; cf. Garrez 1.c.)

    3:3 Whether in the time when this Fargard was written, the Airyana p. 4 Vaêgô was still believed to be in the far-off lands of the rising sun, or already on the banks of the Aras, we leave undecided.

    4:1 See Introd. IV, 4.

    4:2 Literally 'the most beneficent,' an epithet of Zarathustra, which was later mistaken for a family name, 'the Spitamide.'

    4:3 See Introd. IV, 40.

    4:4 'Every one fancies that the land where he is born and has been brought up is the best and fairest land that I have created.' (Comm.)

    4:5 See following clause. Clause 2 belongs to the Commentary; it is composed of quotations that illustrate the alternative process of the creation: 'First, Ahura Mazda would create a land of such kind that its dwellers might like it, and there could be nothing more delightful. Then he who is all death would bring against it a counter-creation.'

    5:1 See the Introd. to the Fargard.

    5:2 'The good Dâitya.' 'The Dâitîk (Dâitya) comes from Irân Vêg (Airyana Vaêgô), it flows through the mountains of Gorgistân (Georgia,' Bund. p. 51, 19). It was therefore, in the time of the Sassanides, a name of the Araxes.

    5:3 'There are many Khrafstras in the Dâitîk, as it is said, The Dâitîk full of Khrafstras' (Bund. p. 51, 20). The serpent in the river was originally the mythical Serpent, Azis, who overthrew and killed the king of Irân Vêg, Yima (see Introd. IV, 18); then it was identified, as appears from the Bundahis, with the snakes that abound on the banks of the Araxes (Morier, A Second Journey, p. 250).

    5:4 As Irân Vêg is a place of refuge for mankind and all life from the winter that is to destroy the world (see Farg. II, 21 seq.), winter was thought, by a mythical misunderstanding, to be the counter-creation of Irân Vêg: hence the glacial description of that strange paradise (see the following clause).

    5:5 Vendîdâd Sâdah: 'It is known that in the ordinary course of nature there are seven months of summer and five of winter' (see Bund. XXV).

    5:6 Some say: 'Even those two months of summer are cold for the waters . . .' (Comm.; cf. Mainyô-i-khard XLIV, 20, and above, n. 4).

    5:7 Vend. Sâdah: 'There reigns the core and heart of winter.'

    5:8 Doubtful: possibly the name of a river (the Zarafshand).

    5:9 Suguda; Sogdiana.

    6:1 A word unknown: possibly 'the cattle fly.' It is a fly that hides itself among the corn and the fodder, and, thence stings with a venomous sting the ox that eats of it (Comm. and Asp.)

    6:2 Margu; Margiana; Merv.

    6:3 Translated according to the Comm. and Asp.

    6:4 Bâkhtri; Bactra; Balkh.

    6:5 'The corn-carrying ants' (Asp.; cf. Farg. XIV, 5).

    6:6 There were several towns of this name, but none between Môuru and Bâkhdhi. But the sentence may be translated also: 'Nisâya between which and Bâkhdhi Môuru lies,' which would point to Νισαία, the capital of Parthia (Παρθαύνισα Isid. of Charax 12); cf. Pliny 6, 25 (29).

    6:7 'One must believe in the law, and have no doubt whatever about it in the heart, and firmly believe that the good and right law that Ormazd sent to the world is the same law that was brought to us by Zardust' (Saddar 1).

    7:1 Haraiva; Areia; the basin of the Hari river, or Herat.

    7:2 Doubtful.

    7:3 Doubtful.

    7:4 'Kapul' (Comm.; see the Introd. to the Fargard).

    7:5 See Introd. IV, 21.

    7:6 According to Asp. Tus (in Khorasan); more probably the land around Ispahan. See the Introd. to the Fargard.

    7:7 Or better, tyranny: 'the great are proud there' (Comm.)

    7:8 Varkâna; Hyrcania. 'Khnenta is a river in Vehrkâna' (Comm.); consequently the river Gorgân.

    7:9 See Farg. VIII, 31.

    7:10 Harauvati; Ἀράχωτος; Harût.

    8:1 See Farg. III, 36 seq.

    8:2 The basin of the Ἐτύμανδρος or Erymanthus; now Helmend. Cf. Farg. XIX, 39.

    8:3 The wizards; see Introd. IV, 20.

    8:4 The evil eye.

    8:5 As a Γόης. Witchcraft is exercised either by the eye or by the voice (Asp.)

    8:6 Vendîdâd Sâdah: 'Then they come forth to kill and to strike to the heart! A gloss cites, as productions of the wizard, I snow and hail' (cf. Hippocrates, De Morbo Sacro 1, and Pausanias 2, 34, 4). To that gloss seems to belong the corrupt Zend sentence that follows, and that may mean 'they increase the plague of locusts' (cf. Farg. VII, 26).

    8:7 Raï. See Introd. III. 15.

    8:8 'They doubt themselves and cause other people to doubt' (Comm.)

    9:1 A land unknown. Asp.: China, which is certainly wrong. There was a town of that name in Khorasan (Karkh).

    9:2 See Farg. VIII, 73.

    9:3 See the Introd. to the Farg.

    9:4 Farg. XVI, 11 seq.

    9:5 Possibly an allusion to Azis Dahâka (Zohâk), who, as a king, represents the foreign conqueror (in later tradition the Tâzî or Arab; possibly in older tradition the Assyrian).

    9:6 The basin of the affluents of the Indus, the modern Pañgâb (= the Five Rivers).

    9:7 'Arvastân-i-Rûm (Roman Mesopotamia),' (Comm.; see the Introd. to the Farg.)

    9:8 It is interpreted in a figurative sense as meaning 'people who p. 10 do not hold the chief for a chief' (Comm.), which is the translation for asraosha (Comm. ad XVI, 18), 'rebel against the law,' and would well apply in the Sassanian ages to the non-Mazdean people of Arvastân-i-Rûm. I think we must adopt the literal meaning, and recognise in this passage the source, or at least the oldest form, of those tales about people without a head, with eyes on their shoulders, which Pliny received from the half-Persian Ctesias (Hist. N. VII, 2; V, 8; cf. Aul. Gell. IX, 4; Sanct. August. De Civit. Dei, XVI, Cool. Persian geographers mention such people, they place them in the Oriental islands near China, whence they sent ambassadors to the Khan of the Tatars (Ouseley, Catalogue). The mythical origin of those tales may be traced in Indian and Greek mythology (Orm. Ahr. § 222; cf. Pausanias IX, 20).

    10:1 Vendîdâd Sâdah: 'And the oppression of the land that comes from taoza (?).'

    Next: Fargard II. Yima (gamshêd)

    Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for I have a sonic screwdriver, a tricorder, and a Type 2 phaser.
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #111 - May 01, 2017, 12:19 PM

    Should avoid touching their mouth, because the saliva of the dog full of germs
    And should eat in a bowl away from your food your
    in order to get rid of the microbe of the saliva of the dog if it fell into the pot should be washed the pot 7 times the first time with

    soil and the rest of the 6 with water and thus ends the microbe and the scientists discovered a truth the Prophet Muhammad

    peace be upon him and the Prophet said that 1400 years ago, then his knowledge that God because he was not there Maikarscop


    Uniqueness of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him only
    Does anyone in the past knows about these bacteria and germs and how to treat them?


    And see the result you will not find any bacteria
    And confirmed by the microscope
    This shows the sincerity of the Prophet Mohammad peace be upon him
    Because he did not have a microscope at the time
    God guided you to the right



    Dog is used in agriculture and guard, fishing and livestock and for the purposes of the arrest of criminals
    Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him does not hate the dog
    But
    Select the rules to deal with it



    There is a Hadith that suggests kindness to dogs and animals:

    Volume 3, Book 43, Number 646:

    Narrated Abu Huraira:

    The Prophet said, "A man felt very thirsty while
    he was on the way, there he came across a well.
    He went down the well, quenched his thirst and
    came out. Meanwhile he saw a dog panting and
    licking mud because of excessive thirst. He said
    to himself, "This dog is suffering from thirst as I
    did. "

    So, he went down the well again and filled
    his shoe with water and watered it.

    Allah thanked
    him for that deed and forgave him.

    The people
    said, "O Allah's Apostle! Is there a reward for us
    in serving the animals? "He replied:" Yes, there is
    a reward for serving any animate (living being). "

    (See Hadith No. 551)


    I wish for everyone to benefit
    Search on scientific evidence

    This is the real man
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MYGsb__87vU


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Eh2itNTrhI
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #112 - May 01, 2017, 01:01 PM

    Should avoid touching their mouth, because the saliva of the dog full of germs
    And should eat in a bowl away from your food your
    in order to get rid of the microbe of the saliva of the dog if it fell into the pot should be washed the pot 7 times the first time with

    soil and the rest of the 6 with water and thus ends the microbe and the scientists discovered a truth the Prophet Muhammad
    ....................


    NO ...nope., noooooooooooo.,

    NO SUCH SAYINGS I SEE IN QURAN.. NO RABIES INFECTED RABID  DOG/S IN QURAN .. hence I delete that .  .and..and neither I see love nor compassion in your  posts  dear akay

     

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #113 - May 02, 2017, 05:03 AM

    Quote
    NO DOG/S IN QURAN


    Actually there's a doggy with the seven sleepers in the surat al-kahf. It's not the Qur'an that's anti doggy, it's the hadith.
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #114 - May 02, 2017, 06:23 AM

    Actually there's a doggy with the seven sleepers in the surat al-kahf. It's not the Qur'an that's anti doggy, it's the hadith.

    you  are right Zimriel .,   there is mistake in that post  ..  the word should have been "RABID DOGS not just "dog".,  i was thinking/writing something about  RABIES INFECTED RABID DOGS OF ISLAM  that recently  killed a young journalism student in the land of pure. and on the way casually responding to  our ISLAM  LOVING good friend akay..

    well now you mentioned so let me put those verses here from that Surah Al-A'raaf, and Surah   Al-Kahf

    Quote
    And if We had pleased, We would certainly have exalted him thereby; but he clung to the earth and followed his low desire, so his parable is as the parable of the dog; if you attack him he lolls out his tongue; and if you leave him alone he lolls out his tongue; this is the parable of the people who reject Our communications  therefore relate the narrative that they may reflect. ......... Al-A'raaf,  , Verse #176)

    And you might think them awake while they were asleep and We turned them about to the right and to the left, while their dog (lay) outstretching its paws at the entrance; if you looked at them you would certainly turn back from them in flight, and you would certainly be filled with awe because of them.  ... Surah  Al-Kahf,  , Verse #18)

    (3) (Some) say: (They are) three, the fourth of them being their dog; and (others) say: Five, the sixth of them being their dog, making conjectures at what is unknown; and (others yet) say: Seven, and the eighth of them is their dog. Say: My Lord best knows their number, none knows them but a few; therefore contend not in the matter of them but with an outward contention, and do not question concerning them any of them. Surah  Al-Kahf,, Chapter #18, Verse #22)


    well Quran indeed a fascinating book w.r.t. questions like

    who wrote those verses?
    where did they get from ?
    and how did  these verses arranged in that book at given surah/place ? etc..etc  
    I stopped writing and reading the usual Quran because of my own post here

      well  That is what I was considering it as  order of alleged revelation    but this Quran Translation link   which is a pdf file of  900 pages of Quran      Published by   www.cthq.ir  gives different revelation order ..so  let me put that here as  another reference to alleged revelation order

    That Shia book on Quran translation by a  unknown Indian guy from west (NOT WELL KNOWN TRANSLATION)  floored me    So I am reading that book,  you can download that book from this link
     http://www.duas.org/pdfs/QuranTranslation_Ali%20Quri.pdf

    with best regards
    yeezevee

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #115 - May 03, 2017, 09:18 AM

    \\\

    The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The purification of the vessel of one of you, if a dog licks it, is to wash it seven times, the first time with soil” – and in another hadeeth, “If a dog licks a vessel…” All of the ahaadeeth mention licking only; they do not mention any other part of the dog, regarding them as naajis is based only on analogy.

    Dogs saliva spreads disease and no one considered this until allah told muhammad?




     in order to get rid of the microbe of the saliva of the dog if it fell into the pot should be washed the pot 7 times the first time with

     soil  and the rest of the 6 with water and thus ends the microbe and the scientists discovered a truth the Prophet Muhammad

    peace be upon him and the Prophet said that 1400 years ago, then his knowledge that God because he was not there Maikarscop


    The modern scientists analyzed the dust of the cemetery to know what the bacteria, and they expect to find a lot of harmful bacteria, and because a lot of people are dying disease infectious germ, but they did not find in the dust impact of these harmful germs harmful ...  so that the soil property killing harmful germs, and not for the danger to spread and has gotten her, and their predecessors the Prophet may Allah bless him and grant him peace to the report of this fact, this hadith

    The modern scientists
     converted to Islam
     after the experiment

    Professor Tejatat Tejasen
     
     
         Professor Tejatat Tejasen is the Chairman of the Department of Anatomy at Chiang Mai University in Thailand. Previously, he was Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at the same university. During the Eighth Saudi Medical Conference in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Professor Tejasen stood up and said:
    "During the past three years, I was interested in the Quran ... From my studies and what I have learned from this conference, I believe that everything that has been reported in the Qur'an there are fourteen centuries is the truth, which can be proven by scientific means. As the Prophet Muhammad could neither read nor write, Muhammad must be a messenger who relayed this

    truth, which was revealed to him as an enlightenment by the one who is the Creator. This Creator is God. therefore, I think it's time for me to say La ilaha illa Allah, there is no god worthy of worship except God, Muhammadur rasoolu Allah, Muhammad is the messenger (Prophet) of Allah (God). Finally, I would like


    to offer my congratulations on the very successful and excellent organization of this conference ... this conference brought me a lot of perspective science and religion, and I had the opportunity to meet many well-known scientists and make me many new friends among the participants. And the most valuable thing I have gained by coming to this place is La ilaha illa Allah, Muhammadur rasoolu Allah, and to be a Muslim. "

    Christian Converts to Islam. Must See Ending -'Live' Street Dawah

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8kl758y-MA0
    The entire Quran was however also recorded in writing at the time of revelation from the Prophet’s dictation, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, by some of his literate companions, the most prominent of them being Zaid ibn Thabit.[1]  Others among his noble scribes were Ubayy ibn Ka’b, Ibn Mas’ud, Mu’awiyah ibn Abi-Sufyan, Khalid ibn Waleed and Zubayr ibn Awwam.[2]  The verses were recorded on leather, parchment, scapulae (shoulder bones of animals) and the stalks of date palms.[3]

    The codification of the Quran (i.e. into a ‘book form’) was done soon after the Battle of Yamamah (11AH/633CE), after the Prophet’s death, during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr.  Many companions became martyrs at that battle, and it was feared that unless a written copy of the entire revelation was produced, large parts of the Quran might be lost with the death of those who had memorized it.  Therefore, at the suggestion of Umar to collect the Quran in the form of writing, Zaid ibn Thabit was requested by Abu Bakr to head a committee which would gather together the scattered recordings of the Quran and prepare a mushaf - loose sheets which bore the entire revelation on them.[4]  To safeguard the compilation from errors, the committee accepted only material which had been written down in the presence of the Prophet himself, and which could be verified by at least two reliable witnesses who had actually heard the Prophet recite the passage in question[5].  Once completed and unanimously approved of by the Prophet’s Companions, these sheets were kept with the Caliph Abu Bakr (d. 13AH/634CE), then passed on to the Caliph Umar (13-23AH/634-644CE), and then Umar’s daughter and the Prophet’s widow, Hafsah[6].

    The third Caliph Uthman (23AH-35AH/644-656CE) requested Hafsah to send him the manuscript of the Quran which was in her safekeeping, and ordered the production of several bounded copies of it (masaahif, sing. mushaf).  This task was entrusted to the Companions Zaid ibn Thabit, Abdullah ibn Az-Zubair, Sa’eed ibn As-’As, and Abdur-Rahman ibn Harith ibn Hisham.[7]  Upon completion (in 25AH/646CE), Uthman returned the original manuscript to Hafsah and sent the copies to the major Islamic provinces.

    A number of non-Muslim scholars who have studied the issue of the compilation and preservation of the Quran also have stated its authenticity.  John Burton, at the end of his substantial work on the Quran’s compilation, states that the Quran as we have it today is:

    “…the text which has come down to us in the form in which it was organized and approved by the Prophet…. What we have today in our hands is the mushaf of Muhammad.[8]

    Kenneth Cragg describes the transmission of the Quran from the time of revelation to today as occurring in “an unbroken living sequence of devotion.”[9]  Schwally concurs that:

    “As far as the various pieces of revelation are concerned, we may be confident that their text has been generally transmitted exactly as it was found in the Prophet’s legacy.”[10]

    The historical credibility of the Quran is further established by the fact that one of the copies sent out by the Caliph Uthman is still in existence today.  It lies in the Museum of the City of Tashkent in Uzbekistan, Central Asia.[11]  According to Memory of the World Program, UNESCO, an arm of the United Nations, ‘it is the definitive version, known as the Mushaf of Uthman.’[12]

     This manuscript, held by the Muslim Board of Uzbekistan, is the earliest existent written version of the Quran.  It is the definitive version, known as the Mushaf of Othman.  Image courtesy of Memory of the World Register, UNESCO.

     

    A facsimile of the mushaf in Tashkent is available at the Columbia University Library in the US.[13]  This copy is proof that the text of the Quran we have in circulation today is identical with that of the time of the Prophet and his companions.  A copy of the mushaf sent to Syria (duplicated before a fire in 1310AH/1892CE destroyed the Jaami’ Masjid where it was housed) also exists in the Topkapi Museum in Istanbul[14], and an early manuscript on gazelle parchment exists in Dar al-Kutub as-Sultaniyyah in Egypt.  More ancient manuscripts from all periods of Islamic history found in the Library of Congress in Washington, the Chester Beatty Museum in Dublin (Ireland) and the London Museum have been compared with those in Tashkent, Turkey and Egypt, with results confirming that there have not been any changes in the text from its original time of writing.[15]

    The Institute for Koranforschung, for example, in the University of Munich (Germany), collected over 42,000 complete or incomplete ancient copies of the Quran.  After around fifty years of research, they reported that there was no variance between the various copies, except the occasional mistakes of the copyist which could easily be ascertained.  This Institute was unfortunately destroyed by bombs during WWII.[16]

    Thus, due to the efforts of the early companions, with God’s assistance, the Quran as we have it today is recited in the same manner as it was revealed.  This makes it the only religious scripture that is still completely retained and understood in its original language.  Indeed, as Sir William Muir states, “There is probably no other book in the world which has remained twelve centuries (now fourteen) with so pure a text.”[17]

    The evidence above confirms God’s promise in the Quran:

    “Verily, We have revealed the Reminder, and verily We shall preserve it.” (Quran 15:9)

    The Quran has been preserved in both oral and written form in a way no other book has, and with each form providing a check and balance for the authenticity of the other

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rR_AxL3kD44&list=PLiGRJIBiTsTZc8DVm9afMQnp9Qkgn6A1h

  • Love and compassion
     Reply #116 - May 03, 2017, 09:37 AM

     Damn....  Damn you akay..I am reading something   eating something drinking something and you posted  load of .......  
    ........The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The purification of the vessel of one of you, if a dog licks it, is to wash it seven times, the first time with soil” – and in another hadeeth, “If a dog licks a vessel…”  .....................

    errrr... you make lots of silly mistakes like me  akay

    if you want to write   "Allah"    as "Allaah"    at least  learn to type like this   "All-aah"

    .......aah-aah- All-aah.......

    Yes..yes.. well I agree with that hadith ..  STUPID DOGS .. they lick their dicks all the time ., so  people must do purification of the vessel of one of you, if a dog licks it, is to wash it seven times,

    so what is wrong with that dear akay., Please FOLLOW ISLAM when it comes to  clean  living..  well rest of your post is not worth reading

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #117 - May 10, 2017, 01:53 PM

    Cats hold a special place to the Muslims, since Prophet Muhammad is very fond of cats.

    One story mentioned that a cat saved Prophet Mohammad from being bitten by a deadly snake.

    There was also a story of the Prophet cutting off his shirt sleeve rather than disturbing his sleeping cat when it was time for prayers. When people at the mosque noticed him wearing a torn sleeved robe, they asked "Holy Prophet, why is your garment torn?"

    The Prophet simply replied that his cat is sleeping soundly upon the sleeve of his robe and rather than disturbing the cat, he cut the sleeve and put on what remained of his garment. The Prophet is so kind to animals that he would not pull the garment or awaken the cat, instead he rather cut his robe and let the cat sleep undisturbed.

    It is a well-known fact that the Prophet is a cat lover and respect animals. Muslims are taught to follow his exemplary behaviour on kindness to animals.

    A companion of the Prophet was given the name Abu Hurairah. The name Abu Hurairah means 'father of the cats'. Abu Hurairah was given this name because where ever he goes, he always had a kitten with him.


    The Prophet also mentioned "To catch birds and imprison them in cages without any special purpose is considered abominable." Hence if you have birds living in cages, set them free.

    In Hadith (Muslim religious text) of Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 4, Book 56, Number 673, narrated by Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "While a dog was going round a well and was about to die of thirst, an Israeli prostitute saw it and took off her shoe and watered it. So Allah forgave her because of that good deed. "

    In another Hadith text, the Prophet told his companions of a woman who would be sent to Hell for having locked up a cat; not feeding it, nor even releasing it so that it could feed herself. "



    So what you think?
    Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) is the most kindest person this universe.

    Hadith narrated by Abdullah Ibn Umar (R.A.) that once a person came to the Prophet of Allah (PBUH) and asked "O Prophet of Allah! To what extent should we forgive the mistakes and faults of our slaves and servants?"

    The Prophet (PBUH) remained silent whereupon the man repeated this question. The Prophet (PBUH) again, remained silent and when the man asked for a third time, he replied "Seventy times a day."
    (According to Anas): I was eight years of age when I became the Holy Prophet Mohammad's (SAWS) servant and served him for 10 years. He never rebuked me even when I broke or damaged something. If his family said something strong, then he would tell them leave it & to forget about it. Whatever Allah has destined will happen".



    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N1DSdqMycEQ

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cx4giAuFHnE
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #118 - May 10, 2017, 02:30 PM

    Cats hold a special place .....
     Prophet Muhammad is very fond of cats........
    So what you think?
    Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) is the most kindest person in this universe.


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uWmGwUolEL4

    indeed it proves most kindest species in this universe.

    . really?? Does it  really prove that??

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Love and compassion
     Reply #119 - May 12, 2017, 03:27 AM

    To the land of no return, the land of darkness,
    Ishtar, the daughter of Sin directed her thought,
    Directed her thought, Ishtar, the daughter of Sin,
    To the house of shadows, the dwelling, of Irkalla,
    To the house without exit for him who enters therein,
    To the road, whence there is no turning,
    To the house without light for him who enters therein,
    The place where dust is their nourishment, clay their food.'
    They have no light, in darkness they dwell.
    Clothed like birds, with wings as garments,
    Over door and bolt, dust has gathered.
    Ishtar on arriving at the gate of the land of no return,
    To the gatekeeper thus addressed herself:

    "Gatekeeper, ho, open thy gate!
    Open thy gate that I may enter!
    If thou openest not the gate to let me enter,
    I will break the door, I will wrench the lock,
    I will smash the door-posts, I will force the doors.
    I will bring up the dead to eat the living.
    And the dead will outnumber the living."
    The gatekeeper opened his mouth and spoke,
    Spoke to the lady Ishtar:
    "Desist, O lady, do not destroy it.
    I will go and announce thy name to my queen Ereshkigal."
    The gatekeeper entered and spoke to Ereshkigal:
    "Ho! here is thy sister, Ishtar ...
    Hostility of the great powers ...
    When Ereshkigal heard this,
    As when one hews down a tamarisk she trembled,
    As when one cuts a reed, she shook:
    "What has moved her heart [seat of the intellect] what has stirred her liver [seat of the emotions]?
    Ho there, does this one wish to dwell with me?
    To eat clay as food, to drink dust as wine?
    I weep for the men who have left their wives.
    I weep for the wives torn from the embrace of their husbands;
    For the little ones cut off before their time.
    Go, gatekeeper, open thy gate for her,
    Deal with her according to the ancient decree."
    The gatekeeper went and opened his gate to her:
    Enter, O lady, let Cuthah greet thee.

    Let the palace of the land of no return rejoice at thy presence!

    He bade her enter the first gate, which he opened wide, and took the large crown off her head:
    "Why, O gatekeeper, dost thou remove the large crown off my head?"
    "Enter, O lady, such are the decrees of Ereshkigal."
    The second gate he bade her enter, opening it wide, and removed her earrings:
    "Why, O gatekeeper, dost thou remove my earrings?"
    "Enter, O lady, for such are the decrees of Ereshkigal."
    The third gate he bade her enter, opened it wide, and removed her necklace:
    "Why, O gatekeeper, dost thou remove my necklace? "
    "Enter, O lady, for such are the decrees of Ereshkigal."
    The fourth gate he bade her enter, opened it wide, and removed the ornaments of her breast:
    "Why, O gatekeeper, dost thou remove the ornaments of my breast? "
    "Enter, O lady, for such are the decrees of Ereshkigal."
    The fifth gate he bade her enter, opened it wide, and removed the girdle of her body studded with birthstones.
    "Why, O gatekeeper, dost thou remove the girdle of my body, studded with birth-stones?"
    "Enter, O lady, for such are the decrees of Ereshkigal."
    The sixth gate, he bade her enter, opened it wide, and removed the spangles off her hands and feet.
    "Why, O gatekeeper, dost thou remove the spangles off my hands and feet?"
    "Enter, O lady, for thus are the decrees of Ereiihkigal."
    The seventh gate he bade her enter, opened it wide, and removed her loin-cloth.
    "Why, O gatekeeper, dost thou remove my loin-cloth ?"
    "Enter, O lady, for such are the decrees of Ereshkigal."
    Now when Ishtar had gone down into the land of no return,
    Ereshkigal saw her and was angered at her presence.
    Ishtar, without reflection, threw herself at her [in a rage].
    Ereshkigal opened her mouth and spoke,
    To Namtar, her messenger, she addressed herself:
    "Go Namtar, imprison her in my palace.
    Send against her sixty disease, to punish Ishtar.
    Eye-disease against her eyes,
    Disease of the side against her side,
    Foot-disease against her foot,
    Heart-disease against her heart,
    Head-disease against her head,
    Against her whole being, against her entire body."
    After the lady Ishtar had gone down into the land of no return,
    The bull did not mount the cow, the ass approached not the she-ass,
    To the maid in the street, no man drew near
    The man slept in his apartment,
    The maid slept by herself.

    [The second half of the poem, the reverse of the tablet, continues is follows:]

    The countenance of Papsukal, the messenger of the great gods, fell, his face was troubled.
    In mourning garb he was clothed, in soiled garments clad.
    Shamash [the sun-god] went to Sin [the moon-god], his father, weeping,
    In the presence of Ea, the King, he went with flowing tears.
    "Ishtar has descended into the earth and has not come up. The bull does not mount the cow, the ass does not approach the she-ass.
    The man does not approach the maid in the street,
    The man sleeps in his apartment,
    The maid sleeps by herself."
    Ea, in the wisdom of his heart, formed a being,
    He formed Asu-shu-namir the eunuch.
    Go, Asu-shu-namir, to the land of no return direct thy face!
    The seven gates of the land without return be opened before thee,
    May Eresbkigal at sight of thee rejoice!
    After her heart has been assuaged, her liver quieted,
    Invoke against her the name of the great gods,
    Raise thy head direct thy attention to the khalziku skin.
    "Come, lady, let them give me the khalziku skin, that I may drink water out of it."
    When Ereshkigal heard this, she struck her side, bit her finger,
    Thou hast expressed a wish that can not be granted.
    Go, Asu-sbu-iaamir, I curse thee with a great curse,
    The sweepings of the gutters of the city be thy food,
    The drains of the city be thy drink,
    The shadow of the wall be thy abode,
    The thresholds be thy dwelling-place;
    Drunkard and sot strike thy cheek!"
    Ereshkigal opened her mouth and spoke,
    To Namtar, her messenger, she addressed herself.
    "Go, Namtar, knock at the strong palace,
    Strike the threshold of precious stones,
    Bring out the Anunnaki, seat them on golden thrones.
    Sprinkle Ishtar with the waters of life and take her out of my presence.
    Namtar went, knocked at the strong palace,
    Tapped on the threshold of precious stones.
    He brought out the Anunnaki and placed them on golden thrones,
    He sprinkled Ishtar with the waters of life and took hold of her.
    Through the first gate he led her out and returned to her her loin-cloth.
    Through the second gate he led her out and returned to her the spangles of her hands and feet
    Through the third gate he led her out and returned to her the girdle of her body, studded with birth-stones.
    Through the fourth gate he led her out and returned to her the ornaments of her breast.
    Through the fifth gate he led her out and returned to her her necklace.
    Through the sixth gate he led her out and returned her earrings.
    Through the seventh gate he led her out and returned to her the large crown for her head.

    [The following lines are in the form of an address -apparently to some one who has sought release for a dear one from the portals of the lower world.]

    "If she (Ishtar) will not grant thee her release,
    To Tammuz, the lover of her youth,
    Pour out pure waters, pour out fine oil;
    With a festival garment deck him that he may play on the flute of lapis lazuli,
    That the votaries may cheer his liver. [his spirit]
    Belili [sister of Tammuz] had gathered the treasure,
    With precious stones filled her bosom.
    When Belili heard the lament of her brother, she dropped her treasure,
    She scattered the precious stones before her,
    "Oh, my only brother, do not let me perish!
    On the day when Tammuz plays for me on the flute of lapis lazuli, playing it for me with the porphyry ring.
    Together with him, play ye for me, ye weepers and lamenting women!
    That the dead may rise up and inhale the incense."

    Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for I have a sonic screwdriver, a tricorder, and a Type 2 phaser.
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