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Theme Changer

 Topic: Random Islamic History Posts

 (Read 169842 times)
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  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #660 - February 17, 2022, 10:23 AM

    Kristina Richardson discussing her new work "Roma in the Medieval Islamic World" with Marina Rustow
    In Middle Eastern cities as early as the mid-8th century, the Sons of Sasan begged, trained animals, sold medicinal plants and potions, and told fortunes. They captivated the imagination of Arab writers and playwrights, who immortalized their strange ways in poems, plays, and the Thousand and One Nights. Using a wide range of sources, Richardson investigates the lived experiences of these Sons of Sasan, who changed their name to Ghuraba’ (Strangers) by the late 1200s. This name became the Arabic word for the Roma and Roma-affiliated groups also known under the pejorative term ‘Gypsies’.

    This book uses mostly Ghuraba’-authored works to understand their tribal organization and professional niches as well as providing a glossary of their language Sin. It also examines the urban homes, neighborhoods, and cemeteries that they constructed. Within these isolated communities they developed and nurtured a deep literary culture and astrological tradition, broadening our appreciation of the cultural contributions of medieval minority communities. Remarkably, the Ghuraba’ began blockprinting textual amulets by the 10th century, centuries before printing on paper arrived in central Europe. When Roma tribes migrated from Ottoman territories into Bavaria and Bohemia in the 1410s, they may have carried this printing technology into the Holy Roman Empire.

    Kristina Richardson is Associate Professor of History at Queens College and The Graduate Center, CUNY. She is the author of Difference and Disability in the Medieval Islamic World: Blighted Bodies (Edinburgh, 2012) and co-editor of Ayyām Kamāl al-Dīn: Ḥalab fī awākhir al-qarn al-‘āshir / The Notebook of Kamāl al-Dīn the Weaver (Beirut, 2021). She is currently writing a history of early Islamic Basra and its African and South Asian free and unfree laborers.

    Marina Rustow is the Khedouri A. Zilkha Professor of Jewish Civilization in the Near East and professor of Near Eastern Studies and History at Princeton University. She is Director of the Princeton Geniza Lab and a MacArthur fellow, and is the author of Heresy and the Politics of Community: The Jews of the Fatimid Caliphate.

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #661 - February 28, 2022, 09:10 PM

    Perspectives on Byzantium and Islam: A Symposium
    The Destruction of Images in Eighth-Century Palestine
    Robert Edwin Schick
    Research Fellow, American Center of Oriental Research, Amman, Jordan

    Untidy History: The Cairo Geniza Documents and Inter-Confessional Contacts
    Arnold E. Franklin
    Assistant Professor of History, Queens College, The City University of New York

    Images in the Heartland and Images in the Southern Periphery of the Byzantine Empire
    Gabriele Mietke
    Curator for Byzantine Art, Skulpturensammlung und Museum für Byzantinische Kunst, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin—Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz

    Transmission of Images in the Mediterranean
    Annie Labatt
    Chester Dale Fellow, MMA

    New Interpretations of the Entrance Facade at Qasr al-Mshatta, Jordan
    Claus-Peter Haase
    Director Emeritus, Museum für Islamische Kunst, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin—Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz, and Honorary Professor of Islamic Art and Archaeology, Freie Universität Berlin

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #662 - March 23, 2022, 11:28 AM

    Empires and Communities in the Post-Roman and Islamic World, C. 400-1000 CE

    This is an open access title available under the terms of a CC BY-NC 4.0 International licence. It is free to read at Oxford Scholarship Online and offered as a free PDF download from OUP and selected open access locations.

    This book deals with the ways empires affect smaller communities like ethnic groups, religious communities and local or peripheral populations. It raises the question how these different types of community were integrated into larger imperial edifices, and in which contexts the dialectic between empires and particular communities caused disruption. How did religious discourses or practices reinforce (or subvert) imperial pretenses? How were constructions of identity affected in the process? How were Egyptians accommodated under Islamic rule, Yemenis included in an Arab identity, Aquitanians integrated in the Carolingian empire, Jews in the Fatimid Caliphate? Why did the dissolution of Western Rome and the Abbasid Caliphate lead to different types of polities in their wake? How was the Byzantine Empire preserved in the 7th century; how did the Franks construct theirs in the 9th? How did single events in early medieval Rome and Constantinople promote social integration in both a local and a broader framework?

    Focusing on the post-Roman Mediterranean, this book deals with these questions from a comparative perspective. It takes into account political structures in the Latin West, in Byzantium and in the early Islamic world, and does so in a period that is exceptionally well suited to study the various expansive and erosive dynamics of empires, as well as their interaction with smaller communities. By never adhering to a single overall model, and avoiding Western notions of empire, this volume combines individual approaches with collaborative perspectives. Taken together, these chapters constitute a major contribution to the advancement of comparative studies on pre-modern empires.

    1. Introduction: Empires and Communities in the Post-Roman and Islamic World (Walter Pohl and Rutger Kramer)

    2. The Emergence of New Polities in the Break-Up of the Abbasid Caliphate (Hugh Kennedy)

    3. The Emergence of New Polities in the Break-Up of the Western Roman Empire (Walter Pohl)

    4. Comparative Perspectives: Differences between the Dissolution of the Western Roman Empire and the Abbasid Caliphate (Walter Pohl and Hugh Kennedy)

    5. Fragmentation and Integration: A Response to the Contributions by Hugh Kennedy and Walter Pohl (Peter Webb)

    6. Historicizing Resilience: The Paradox of the Medieval East Roman State; Collapse, Adaptation, and Survival (John Haldon)

    7. Processions, Power, and Community Identity: East and West (Leslie Brubaker and Chris Wickham)

    8. Death of a Patriarch: The Murder of Yuhanna ibn Jami (966) and the Question of 'Melkite' Identity in Early Islamic Palestine (Daniel Reynolds)

    9. Diversity and Convergence: The Accommodation of Ethnic and Legal Pluralism in the Carolingian Empire (Stefan Esders and Helmut Reimitz)

    10. Franks, Romans, and Countrymen: Carolingian Interests, Local Identities, and the Conquest of Aquitaine (Rutger Kramer)

    11. From the Sublime to the Ridiculous: Yemeni Arab Identity in Abbasid Iraq (including Appendix: translations of selected poems) (Peter Webb)

    12. Loyal and Knowledgeable Supporters: Integrating Egyptian Elites in Early Islamic Egypt (Petra Sijpesteijn)

    13. Concluding Thoughts: Empires and Communities (Chris Wickham)

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #663 - August 07, 2022, 09:42 AM
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #664 - August 15, 2022, 09:57 AM

    Phillip Lieberman - Jews, Urbanization and Demographic Shifts in the Medieval Islamic World
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #665 - September 02, 2022, 07:22 PM

    The history of Christianity in North Africa after the Islamic conquest is very opaque. Some assume that Christian communities disappeared very quickly, but this surely wasn't the case. Here is a fascinating Latin tombstone of a Christian from Qayrawān (Tunisia) from 1007

    It is one of several Christian tombstones from the area. Interestingly, it is dated according to both Christian and Islamic calendars ("annorum infidelium")

    In light of all the interest in Christians and Latin language in medieval North Africa, I’m re-posting this tweet from last year...

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #666 - September 19, 2022, 08:56 AM

    Open access book

    Kościelniak, Krzysztof - Between Constantinople, the Papacy, and the Caliphate: The Melkite Church in the Islamicate World, 634-969
    This volume examines the Melkite church from the Arab invasion of Syria in 634 until 969. The Melkite Patriarchates were established in Antioch, Jerusalem and Alexandria and, following the Arab campaigns in Syria and Egypt, they all came under the new Muslim state. Over the next decades the Melkite church underwent a process of gradual marginalization, moving from the privileged position of the state confession to becoming one of the religious minorities of the Caliphate. This transition took place in the context of theological and political interactions with the Byzantine Empire, the Patriarchate of Constantinople, the Papacy and, over time, with the reborn Roman Empire in the West. Exploring the various processes within the Melkite church this volume also examines Caliphate–Byzantine interactions, the cultural and religious influences of Constantinople, the synthesis of Greek, Arab and Syriac elements, the process of Arabization of communities, and Melkite relations with distant Rome.

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #667 - September 23, 2022, 08:09 AM

    Open access book

    Documents and the history of the early Islamic world - eds. Alexander T. Schubert, Petra Sijpesteijn
    Historians have long lamented the lack of contemporary documentary sources for the Islamic middle ages and the inhibiting effect this has had on our understanding of this critically important period. Although the field is richly served by surviving evidence, much of it is hard to locate, difficult to access, and philologically intractable. Presenting a mixture of historical studies and new editions of Greek, Arabic and Coptic material from the seventh to the fifteenth century C.E. from Egypt and Palestine, Documents and the History of the Early Islamic World explores the untapped wealth of documentary sources available in collections around the world and shows how this exciting material can be used for historical analysis.

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #668 - October 01, 2022, 04:44 PM

    Peter Sarris - How a Lethal Pandemic Brought Catastrophe and Class Conflict to the Byzantine Empire
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #669 - November 06, 2022, 05:45 PM

    Podcasts on the history of modern Iran

    Iran: 1906-1941 w/ Eskandar Sadeghi & Golnar Nikpour
    Featuring Eskandar Sadeghi and Golnar Nikpour on the history of modern Iran, from 1906 through the present. This episode is the first in a four-part series, covering the period from 1906 until 1941, from the Constitutional Revolution that imposed constitutional limits on the Qajar dynasty through the 1921 coup that brought to power Reza Khan—who then in 1925 deposed the Qajars and became Reza Shah, the first shah of the Pahlavi dynasty. We end just before the 1941 occupation of Iran by longtime imperial powers, Britain and the Soviet Union, which forced Reza Shah out and replaced him with his son, Muhammad Reza Shah—which is where we will pick up in episode two.

    Iran, 1941-1953: Tudeh, Mosaddegh, Oil, and the CIA-MI6 Coup
    Featuring Eskandar Sadeghi-Boroujerdi and Golnar Nikpour on the history of modern Iran. This is the second episode in our four-part series. We begin in 1941 with the British-Soviet occupation of Iran, the ouster of Reza Shah and his replacement by his son, Mohammad Reza Shah. We continue with the rise of the Tudeh communist party, the nationalization of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, Mohammad Mosaddegh’s National Party coming to power, and the 1953 US-British coup that overthrew Mosaddegh and reinstalled Mohammad Reza Shah as dictator. His brutal reign continued until the 1979 Islamic Revolution, which is where we will pick up in episode three.

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #670 - November 17, 2022, 09:14 PM

    More podcasts on Iran

    Iran, 1953-1979: From the Shah to Islamic Revolution
    Featuring Eskandar Sadeghi-Boroujerdi and Golnar Nikpour on the history of modern Iran. This is the third episode in our four-part series. We pick up in the wake of the US-British 1953 coup against Mossadegh, assess the Shah’s repression and attempts to manufacture consent through passive revolution, and then close by laying out the 1979 Islamic Revolution in all of its wild complexity.

    Iran, 1979-1997: Islamic Republic, War, and Thermidor
    Featuring Eskandar Sadeghi-Boroujerdi and Golnar Nikpour on the history of modern Iran. This is the fourth episode in what is now a FIVE-part series. We pick up in the wake of the Islamic Revolution as Khomeini consolidates power, represses his rivals, and confronts an invasion from Saddam Hussein’s Iraq. We continue through the Iran-Iraq War, the mass execution of thousands of leftist prisoners, and Khamenei and Rafsanjani’s rise to power after Khomeini’s death.

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #671 - November 17, 2022, 09:57 PM

    Podcast with Kristina Richardson
    Medieval Arabic sources are full of references to the Banu Sasan (Sons of Sasan) and the Ghuraba' (Strangers), an enigmatic but captivating group who begged, told fortunes, trained animals, and practiced medicine throughout the Islamic world from the mid-7th century onwards. These groups constitute peoples who would later come to be known as the Roma. Although they both produced their own texts and were written about by outsiders, relatively little scholarship has been conducted into the Roma in the Middle East. In this episode, Dr. Kristina Richardson joins me to talk about her new book Roma in the Medieval Islamic World: Literacy, Culture, and Migration (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2021). Drawing on a wide variety of literary and archaeological evidence to illuminate the practices, languages, and lived experiences of the Roma in the Middle Ages, Dr. Richardson's book argues for a central role of the Roma in medieval culture and society. We discuss nomadism and mobility among the medieval Roma, their literary and artistic outputs, languages, trades, relationships with outsiders, and contemporary issues affecting the study of the Roma in the Middle East today.

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #672 - November 19, 2022, 08:32 AM

    Oh my goodness that is a wonderful book on folks with a forgotten history.   In the history of mankind there were millions of such persecuted intelligent well educated nomads of their times ... The so-called Romas... I love such freedom loving free roaming people .. The Vagabonds of Human history 

    It is indeed a first book that connects Islamic history with such folks and Kristina Richardson  did a great job with that book . She richly deserves that coveted Dan David Prize ..   

    Not only one should read this book of Dr. Kristina .,

    but her first book on Islam is equally fascinating work 

    Thank you for that post dear zeca...

    Great man... great humanitarian..

    Do not let silence become your legacy.. Question everything   
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #673 - December 03, 2022, 12:01 AM

    New issue of Al-'Usur al-Wusta
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #674 - January 04, 2023, 09:41 PM

    Michael Bonner - Islam and the Case Against Cultural Amnesia
    This story begins with an instructor of art history at Hamline University in Minnesota who was fired for alleged Islamophobia. The purported offense was showing two images of the Prophet Muhammad to a class of undergraduate students. One of the undergraduates, who was also president of the Muslim Students’ Association, complained. The administration branded the incident “undeniably inconsiderate, disrespectful and Islamophobic,” and the instructor was accordingly terminated.

    One of the images shown was a 16th-century illustration accompanying an Ottoman Turkish biography of the prophet. It depicted him veiled and surrounded by a halo, so it is difficult to understand what could have been deemed offensive about it, even by puritanical standards.

    The other painting was a 14th-century portrayal of the appearance of the Angel Gabriel to Muhammad instructing him to “recite in the name of your Lord who has created” — the first revelation of the Quran (96:1). Here, the prophet’s face is clearly visible. The illustration was originally found in a work of history called “The Compendium of Chronicles” (or “Jami al-Tawarikh” in Arabic) by Rashid al-Din Hamadani (1247–1318), a Persian physician and bureaucrat who served the Mongol conquerors of Iran in the 13th and 14th centuries.

    In the case of the second image, it is easier to imagine someone taking offense, albeit only from a contemporary puritanical perspective. As the art historian Christiane Gruber has recently argued in New Lines, the modern unwillingness to depict Muhammad has not always prevailed within Islam. A 700-year-old picture of him should be obvious proof of this. In effect, then, the university administration took a side in a doctrinal debate. The incident could be compared to a Calvinist taking offense at an image of Michelangelo’s Sistine Ceiling, and the university administration siding with the Calvinist while calling the incident “anti-Christian.” Most people would probably struggle to take that seriously.

    Academics like Gruber have rightly asserted that academic freedom should have prevailed. The story could well end here. But it seems to me the incident offers a deeper lesson. To explain what I mean, we need to look closer at Rashid al-Din and his “Compendium of Chronicles” and the context in which the work was written.

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #675 - April 09, 2023, 07:09 PM

    Chris Wickham on the medieval Mediterranean economy
    Even today, people tend to see the great central medieval trade cycle in the Mediterranean as dominated by Italian cities and the luxury trade focussed in Venice - and on great ships.

    In this lecture, the focus will change to local and regional exchange - more often carried by donkeys - and will use Egypt as a starting-point, rather than Italy. The way economic change took place in a long eleventh century was locally-based before it was international. in this lecture, we will look at how.

    New book:

    The Donkey and the Boat: Reinterpreting the Mediterranean Economy, 950-1180
    A new account of the Mediterranean economy in the 10th to 12th centuries, forcing readers to entirely rethink the underlying logic to medieval economic systems. Chris Wickham re-examines documentary and archaeological sources to give a detailed account of both individual economies, and their relationships with each other.

    Chris Wickham offers a new account of the Mediterranean economy in the tenth to twelfth centuries, based on a completely new look at the sources, documentary and archaeological. Our knowledge of the Mediterranean economy is based on syntheses which are between 50 and 150 years old; they are based on outdated assumptions and restricted data sets, and were written before there was any usable archaeology; and Wickham contends that they have to be properly rethought.

    This is the first book ever to give a fully detailed comparative account of the regions of the Mediterranean in this period, in their internal economies and in their relationships with each other. It focusses on Egypt, Tunisia, Sicily, the Byzantine empire, Islamic Spain and Portugal, and north-central Italy, and gives the first comprehensive account of the changing economies of each; only Byzantium has a good prior synthesis. It aims to force our rethinking of how economies worked in the medieval Mediterranean. It also offers a rethinking of how we should understand the underlying logic of the medieval economy in general.

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #676 - June 20, 2023, 07:17 AM
    In this episode we'll be discussing the spread of various Islamic movements across North Africa at the end of Late Antiquity and into the Medieval era. This period marked a significant turning point in the history of North Africa, as it witnessed the rise of several Islamic sects that would go on to shape the religious and cultural landscape of the region for centuries to come.

    The most significant of these movements to gain prominence in this time period were the  Khārijites. But alongside Khārijism, other Islamic movements such as Shī‘īsm, Mu'tazilism, and even a Berber-centric syncretic version of Islam also began to gain traction. These movements differed in their theological beliefs and practices, but all sought to establish their own distinct identity within the broader Islamic world.

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #677 - June 25, 2023, 03:38 PM
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #678 - July 26, 2023, 08:30 AM

    Christian Sahner on Christianity under the Caliphate
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #679 - September 16, 2023, 12:51 PM

    Cecilia Palombo - The Christian Clergy’s Islamic Local Government in Late Marwanid and Abbasid Egypt
    This dissertation investigates the role of the Christian clergy in ruling the province of Egypt during the Marwanid and the early Abbasid periods (second and third/eighth and ninth centuries). Focusing on documents excavated on monastic sites, I trace the increased involvement of Christian religious officials, such as deacons, monastic headmen and scribes, in various fields of administration, namely tax collection, archival practices, scribal education, and control of mobility. The relationship between Christian clergy and Muslim rulers in early Islamic Egypt has been traditionally studied as part of the intercommunal interaction between conquerors and indigenous subjects during the transition from Roman to Islamic rule. In contrast, shifting the focus away from that transition, I consider religious and monastic officials as active stakeholders in constructing strategies and discourses of Islamic government. Based on both documentary and literary sources, I argue that local religious officials, who took part in the administration as political actors, cannot be reduced to mere mediators or natural representatives of communities. By highlighting the nuances of the relationship between administrative and ecclesiastical milieus, I show that members of the clergy under Marwanid and Abbasid rule actively contributed to enforcing fiscal strategies and moving resources while monastic scribes helped developing the distinct multilingual documentary culture of the period. Moreover, Christian religious officials played an active role in disseminating ideas of Islamic fair governance in the caliphate and in shaping far-reaching narratives about the relationship between rulers and religious elites in the Umayyad and the early Abbasid periods.

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #680 - September 16, 2023, 01:04 PM
    In this thought-provoking conversation, Prof. Matthee delves deep into his extensive research and insights, shedding light on the nuanced relationship between alcohol and Islamic societies over the centuries. From the early Islamic prohibition of alcohol to its complex role as a symbol of power and social status, we uncover the untold stories and lesser-known facets of this historically significant topic.

    Angels Tapping at the Wine-Shop’s Door: A History of Alcohol in the Islamic World by Rudi Matthee

    Islam is the only major world religion that resists the juggernaut of alcohol consumption. In many Islamic countries, alcohol is banned; in others, it plays little role in social life. Yet, Muslims throughout history did drink, often to excess—whether sultans and shahs in their palaces, or commoners in taverns run by Jews or Christians.

    This evocative study delves into drinking’s many historic, literary and social manifestations in Islam, going beyond references to ‘hypocrisy’ or the temptations of ‘forbidden fruit’. Rudi Matthee argues that alcohol, through its ‘absence’ as much as its presence, takes us to the heart of Islam. Exploring the long history of this faith—from the eight-century Umayyad dynasty to Erdogan’s Turkey, and from Islamic Spain to modern Pakistan—he unearths a tradition of diversity and multiplicity in which Muslims drank, and found myriad excuses to do so. They celebrated wine and used it as a poetic metaphor, even viewing alcohol as a gift from God—the key to unlocking eternal truth.

    Drawing on a plethora of sources in multiple languages, Matthee presents Islam not as an austere and uncompromising faith, but as a set of beliefs and practices that embrace ambivalence, allowing for ambiguity and even contradiction.

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #681 - September 16, 2023, 01:24 PM

    Petra Sijpesteijn - Arabic script and language in the earliest papyri: Mirrors of change
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #682 - September 16, 2023, 10:23 PM

    Patricia Crone - On the Excitements of Lot-Casting
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #683 - September 22, 2023, 10:07 AM

    Patricia Crone - On the Excitements of Lot-Casting

    Very interesting!
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #684 - September 24, 2023, 12:15 PM

    Very interesting!

    Hello Jalal_T .. Greetings and my good wishes to you .,  So what is so interesting about that late dr. Paticia little two page article that was published in 2010??   Just curious to know .,  ARE YOU A EARLY ISLAMIC HISTORY SCHOLAR/HISTORIAN?? unless you are in to early Islamic/preIslamic history, otherwise  it has no value and no use for Ex-Muslims to counter  Islamic Mullahs and Imams...

    I say for navie folks like me your this post    in this very forum is far more useful than that article., In fact your post was/is read more number of people than those who read that article..
    Any way I am so glad to read that post  of yours  and please read more on Dr. Patricia Crone at these links

    you will find far more interesting works from her pen than that little two page article

    with best wishes

    Do not let silence become your legacy.. Question everything   
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #685 - September 28, 2023, 05:23 PM

    Hello yeezevee, it was just nice to know about the historical issue, that's what I meant. Yes I understand your point and of course I am not going to debate Muslim apologists and Mullahs. BTW, what post of my posts are your referring to, i.e. the one that was read more than that article?
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #686 - September 28, 2023, 05:46 PM

    Maria Mavroudi - Byzantine Translations from Arabic into Greek: Old and New Historiography in Confluence and in Conflict
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #687 - September 29, 2023, 11:54 AM

    Open access book

    Maria Mavroudi - A Byzantine Book on Dream Interpretation: The Oneirocriticon of Achmet and Its Arabic Sources
    This volume discusses the so-called Oneirocriticon of Achmet, the most important Byzantine work on dream interpretation which was written in Greek in the 10th century and has greatly influenced subsequent dreambooks in Byzantine Greek, Medieval Latin, and modern European languages.

    By comparing the Oneirocriticon with the 2nd-century A.D. dreambook of Artemidoros (translated into Arabic in the 9th century) and five medieval Arabic dreambooks, this study demonstrates that the Oneirocriticon is a Christian Greek adaption of Islamic Arabic material and that the similarities between it and Artemidoros are due to the influence of Artemidoros on the Arabic sources of the Byzantine work.

    The Oneirocriticon's textual tradition, its language, the identities of its author and patron, and its position among other Byzantine translations from Arabic into Greek are also investigated.

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #688 - October 22, 2023, 06:52 AM

    Christian Sahner - A Christian Insurgency in Islamic Syria: The Jarājima (Mardaites) between Byzantium and the Caliphateājima_Mardaites_between_Byzantium_and_the_Caliphate_
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