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Theme Changer

 Topic: Random Islamic History Posts

 (Read 116104 times)
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  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #60 - May 16, 2015, 08:08 PM

    Okay zeca...I draw the line at 'The early history of Arabic printing'...

    No free mixing of the sexes is permitted on these forums or via PM or the various chat groups that are operating.

    Women must write modestly and all men must lower their case.!
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #61 - May 16, 2015, 10:13 PM

    It's Islamic history, it's random, what's to object to?
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #62 - May 17, 2015, 08:13 AM

    It was a joke..'Arabic printing' appears to be so specific...

    No free mixing of the sexes is permitted on these forums or via PM or the various chat groups that are operating.

    Women must write modestly and all men must lower their case.!
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #63 - May 20, 2015, 01:08 PM

    Religion and the rise of printing in the Ottoman Empire

    Printing in Ottoman Turkish first emerged during the eighteenth century. Yet, even when print had arrived in full force by the middle of the nineteenth century, it remained forbidden to print the text most sought after by Ottoman readers: the Qur'an. In this episode, Brett Wilson discusses the rise of print and Qur'an printing in the Ottoman Empire as well as the emergence of Turkish translations of the Qur'an in the late Ottoman and early Republican eras.

    Listen to the podcast:

    Articles by Brett Wilson:

    Introduction to the book:
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #64 - May 21, 2015, 01:27 PM

    Two hegemonies, one island: Cyprus as a “Middle Ground” between the Byzantines and the Arabs (650-850 A.D.)
    Abstract: This paper aims to assess the political and cultural status of the island of Cyprus as the only place within the Mediterranean where Christian heirs of Romans and Muslims shared the local tax revenue to create a buffer zone between two empires. Geographically isolated between the Constantinopolitan and Damascene hegemonies, and marginalized by emperors and caliphs alike, the development of Cyprus was destined to take a unique, perhaps problematic, trajectory. Detailed examination of archaeological material (seals, coins, ceramics and material artifacts) suggests a different interpretative scheme to the one traditionally adopted to interpret the declining fate of Cyprus after the Muslim raids and the occupation of Syria and Palestine. Instead, I propose, Cyprus and its cities were still active from late antiquity to the early middle ages, preserving a variable but still traceable degree of economic vitality (benefitting from the circulation of Byzantine and Arab coinage), which infers the maintenance of complex political, commercial and cultural relations (implicit in issues of imagery and prototypes of coins) between the Byzantine Empire and the Umayyad Caliphate.

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #65 - May 21, 2015, 01:37 PM

    As Palmyra is in the news here's the BBC In Our Time episode on Zenobia

    Melvyn Bragg and his guests discuss Queen Zenobia, a famous military leader of the ancient world. Born in around 240 AD, Zenobia was Empress of the Palmyrene Empire in the Middle East. A highly educated, intelligent and militarily accomplished leader, she claimed descent from Dido and Cleopatra and spoke many languages, including Egyptian. Zenobia led a rebellion against the Roman Empire and conquered Egypt before being finally defeated by the Emperor Aurelian. Her story captured the imagination of many Renaissance writers, and has become the subject of numerous operas, poems and plays.

    Listen at:
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #66 - May 21, 2015, 01:48 PM

    Fascinating...    can't bear to read the news updates...
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #67 - May 21, 2015, 06:43 PM

    Same here - I've been avoiding reading or watching news about it.
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #68 - May 22, 2015, 10:57 AM

    yep this would be a disaster..  according to the news they have been selling relics to help fund their wars.
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #69 - May 23, 2015, 12:01 PM

    Plus charging 50% from people smugglers in their area.

    `But I don't want to go among mad people,' Alice remarked.
     `Oh, you can't help that,' said the Cat: `we're all mad here. I'm mad.  You're mad.'
     `How do you know I'm mad?' said Alice.
     `You must be,' said the Cat, `or you wouldn't have come here.'
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #70 - May 23, 2015, 09:58 PM

    Special issue of Iranian Studies 48.1 (2015) on "Religious Trends in Late Ancient & Early Islamic Iran"
    Quote from: the introduction
    This special edition of the Journal contains five studies on religious culture in ancient Iran from the Seleucid to early Islamic eras. The articles collectively deal with the complex ties between the ancient Iranian religion of Zoroastrianism and other major religious trends of the period, including Judaism, Christianity, Mazdakism, and Islam. Each article in this volume compares the diverse sets of literature produced by the different religious groups in this time period, such as the Babylonian Talmud of the Rabbis of Babylonia, numerous Syriac Christian sources, Middle Persian Zoroastrian legal and theological texts, and Arabic historiographies, among other literary sources. In addition, this volume also pays particular attention to the role that Iranian royal culture and institutions, attested by archaeological evidence, play in the formation of religious culture in ancient Iran. Interestingly, the articles in this volume emphasize the transition periods at both the beginning and end of the Sasanian Empire (224–651 CE), thereby tracing the effects of political and social ruptures, especially the Islamic conquests in the seventh century, on the religious life of diverse communities in Iran.

    Among the topics that the articles in this volume treat are Zoroastrian Pahlavi polemics against Jews, Christians, and Muslims; the evolution of Iranian sacred architecture and its relation to Zoroastrian religious culture; the judicial ties between Zoroastrian and Christian law in early Islamic Persia; and, lastly, the role and representation of Mazdakism in the sixth century vis-à-vis the supposed development of orthodoxy in Zoroastrianism.

    Before summarizing each of these five articles in more detail, we would first like to offer for the readers of the Journal some necessary background information regarding religious culture in Iran in the period under discussion.

    In the late antique and early Islamic eras, the Iranian world was home to a wide array of religious communities and ethnicities, including Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians, Gnostics, Mazdakites, Buddhists, Popular Magicians, and Muslims, among numerous others. Historians of ancient Iran generally agree that many of these religious groups were in contact with one another in various realms of society, such as legal, scholastic, or economic. Yet, despite the fact that religious groups in Iran often interacted with one another in meaningful ways, scholars in many of the relevant academic disciplines still have much to accomplish by way of comparing the religions of ancient Iran in historical context. Moreover, there still exists a wide gap in methodological orientations—ranging from philology to comparative literature to archaeology—which inhibits the flow of information from one discipline to the next, to the detriment of all invested in the study of ancient Iran. Regrettably, for the past several decades scholars working in one discipline of study have not fully engaged in academic dialogue with scholars in other related ones: that is, scholars of Zoroastrianism, Talmudic Judaism, Syriac Christianity, and early Islam tend to be separated by linguistic and disciplinary divides, when in reality they depend on one another to succeed. Fortunately, this situation is improving with the help of Talmudists such as Yaakov Elman and Richard Kalmin, among others, now comparing the Talmud with Syriac and Zoroastrian literatures to great effect. In sum, the study of religious culture in ancient Iran benefits from using comparative methods which draw from two or more academic disciplines in order to examine the interactions between different religions. Indeed, this volume was conceived with this purpose in mind.

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #71 - May 24, 2015, 05:35 PM

    The beginnings of printing in the Ottoman capital: book production and circulation in early modern Constantinople
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #72 - May 24, 2015, 06:58 PM

    Antony Black - The History of Islamic Political Thought
    A complete history of Islamic political thought from early Islam (c.622–661) to the present

    Now in its 2nd edition, this textbook describes and interprets all schools of Islamic political thought, their origins, interconnections and meaning. It examines the Qur'an, the early Caliphate, classical Islamic philosophy and the political culture of the Ottoman and other empires. It covers major thinkers such as Averroes (Ibn Rushd) and Ibn Taymiyya as well as a number of lesser authors, and Ibn Khaldun is presented as one of the most original political theorists ever. It draws on a wide range of sources including writings on religion, law, philosophy and statecraft expressed in treatises, handbooks and political rhetoric.

    The new edition analyses the connections between religion and politics, covering the most recent developments in Islamic political thought and the most recent historical scholarship. It ends with a critical survey of reformism (or modernism) and Islamism (or fundamentalism) from the late 19th century up to the present day.

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #73 - May 25, 2015, 10:16 AM

    Ilham Khuri-Makdisi - The Eastern Mediterranean and the making of global radicalism 1860-1914
    In this groundbreaking book, Ilham Khuri-Makdisi establishes the existence of a special radical trajectory spanning four continents and linking Beirut, Cairo, and Alexandria between 1860 and 1914. She shows that socialist and anarchist ideas were regularly discussed, disseminated, and reworked among intellectuals, workers, dramatists, Egyptians, Ottoman Syrians, ethnic Italians, Greeks, and many others in these cities. In situating the Middle East within the context of world history, Khuri-Makdisi challenges nationalist and elite narratives of Mediterranean and Middle Eastern history as well as Eurocentric ideas about global radical movements. The book demonstrates that these radical trajectories played a fundamental role in shaping societies throughout the world and offers a powerful rethinking of Ottoman intellectual and social history.


    Contents summary:

    Introduction and Chapter 1:

    Chapter 3: Theater and radical politics in Beirut, Cairo, and Alexandria:
    In the last days of October 1909, a play celebrating the life and work of Francisco Ferrer  was performed in Beirut. Ferrer, a Spanish social and political activist whose ideas combined elements of anarchism and socialism, had been executed three days before. Ferrer  was a pedagogue who had created a modern curriculum and established modern schools  in Barcelona based on the principle of “class harmony,” a project very similar to the ideas  behind the Université Populaire that appeared in France at the same time. Ferrer’s ideas  enjoyed tremendous popularity throughout the world both because of his pedagogy as well  as his ideology, which combined Freemasonry, free thinking, a strong class consciousness,  anarchism, and anticlericalism. He became an icon of the world’s leftist movements in 1909,  when he was falsely accused by the Spanish Church and condemned to death because of his  alleged involvement in an anarchist “terrorist” attack. His trial and condemnation triggered  demonstrations and protests throughout the world, from Italy to Mexico.   

    In Beirut, a play about Ferrer was improvised on the spot. Written in four hours  by Daud Muja‘is and Emile Khuri, the script was promptly memorized by the actors. Remarkably, the cast consisted of sixty people, most of whom must have been nonprofessional  actors recruited locally....

    The opposition to the execution of Francisco Ferrer looks like it might have been the earliest international secularist campaign across the Near East. I've also seen it mentioned for Salonica (still an Ottoman city at the time) and Egypt.

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #74 - May 25, 2015, 03:56 PM

    Anthony Gorman - The Free Popular University in Egypt (1901)

    Anthony Gorman - The Anarchist Movement in Egypt 1860-1940
    Two years later anarchist hostility towards religious authority and political tyranny came together dramatically when the Spanish government arrested Francesco Ferrer i Guàrdia, a noted anarchist thinker, educator and founder of the Modern School movement in Spain, on charges of taking part in the anti-conscription uprising. News of the action spread quickly and prompted widespread protest internationally. In Alexandria a Pro-Ferrer committee was formed and hundreds of copies of a numero unico published on 30 September 1909 to publicise the case. On 4 October a series of speakers denounced the actions of the Spanish government at a meeting at the Free Popular University. Despite these and other protests Ferrer was executed in Barcelona some days later but he soon acquired martyr status. In Cairo later that month a number of anarchist organisations held a pro-Ferrer protest march. By the end of the year a plaque in Ferrer’s memory was set up in Alexandria and on 1 May the following year, the cry was heard: “Vive 1 May, Vive liberty, Vive Francesco Ferrer”.

    The outrage expressed at the execution of Ferrer was not simply a protest against state tyranny but recognition of his status as an advocate for secular education, an important vehicle for social emancipation in anarchist thought. Indeed, it was in the cause of public education that anarchists in Egypt mounted their most ambitious project, the Free Popular University (Università Popolare Libera, henceforth UPL) in Alexandria in 1901. Planned in the early months of that year and galvanised by the leadership of Galleani, the UPL was inaugurated in May with the aim of providing free evening education to the popular classes. The event was covered at length in the local European and Arabic language press which endorsed enthusiastically its objectives and drew widespread support from across the full range of Alexandrian society.

    Although inspired by a European model (the first UPLs had opened in Italy over the previous twelve months), the UPL in Egypt developed its own specific program and character. Ideologically it applied a more radical vision than the Italian UPLs, which had close ties to the Italian Socialist Party (PSI), in offering classes in the humanities and the latest advances in science to workers and providing individual lectures on progressive social issues, such as workers’ associations and the position of women in society. The UPL in Alexandria was also more internationalist by virtue of catering to a culturally and linguistically diverse community. Drawing on the services of voluntary teachers, classes were given in a number of languages, principally Italian and French, but also in Arabic and other languages. As one Alexandrian daily newspaper noted, “All the languages that sound in the mouths of the happy fellow drinkers of the waters of the Nile serve as a vehicle in lectures of different university teachers”.

    Francisco Ferrer: The Origin and Ideals of the Modern School

    Hillaire Belloc puts the Catholic case for executing Ferrer (1911)

    The protests in Salonica get a passing mention here

    Edit: I'm not too sure of the reliability of the information in that last link as it comes from a rather dogmatic and sectarian left communist group, and should probably be treated with caution. I've looked and couldn't find much else that's freely available online.

    Here's a link about the post-WW1 Turkish left:

    Loren Goldner: “Socialism in One Country” before Stalin, and the origins of reactionary “Anti-Imperialism”: the case of Turkey, 1917-1925

    And a link on the Middle East's first, short-lived, left-wing regime:

    Karl Kautsky: Georgia - Impressions and Observations
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #75 - May 26, 2015, 11:07 AM

    Efraim Karsh reviews Eugene Rogan's 'The Fall of the Ottomans'
    A century after the catastrophic blunder that led to the destruction of the then longest-surviving empire on earth, culpability is still ascribed to the European powers. Rather than view the Ottoman entry into the First World War on the losing side for what it was – a failed imperialist bid for territorial aggrandizement and reassertion of lost glory – the Muslim empire has been portrayed as the hapless victim of European machinations, driven into the world conflict by overbearing powers eager to expedite its demise and gobble up its lands.

    Emblematic of the wider tendency to view Middle Easterners as mere objects, whose history is but a function of their unhappy interaction with the West, this conventional wisdom has proved remarkably resistant to the overwhelming evidence to the contrary, and Eugene Rogan's The Fall of the Ottomans (2015) is no exception to this rule.

    Efraim Karsh is a right wing Israeli historian so I'd treat what he says with caution, but I expect there are good reasons to be critical of the anti-imperialist narrative.
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #76 - June 01, 2015, 10:11 AM

    Some articles by Arietta Papaconstantinou, a specialist in late Roman and early Islamic Egypt

    Confrontation, interaction, and the formation of the early Islamic oikoumene

    “What remains behind”: Hellenism and romanitas in Christian Egypt after the Arab conquest

    Why did Coptic fail where Aramaic succeeded? Linguistic developments in Egypt and the Near East after the Arab conquest

    The first link above references this article by Patricia Crone

    islam, Judeo-Christianity and Byzantine Iconoclasm

    Also this article by Elizabeth Key Fowden

    Sharing Holy Places

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #77 - June 01, 2015, 04:52 PM

    Farhud, 1941: Iraqi Jews remember a massacre
    In the collective memory of the Iraqi Jewish community, the Farhud is seen as a failure of the Arab-Jewish idea and as a moment in the penetration of Nazis into the Middle East through the influence of Haj Amin al-Husseini who took refuge in Baghdad for a while. But even here, the story is not complete, since portraying the Farhud as a pogrom against helpless Jews ignores the fact that Jews in Iraq fought against the Nazis and their influence. They wrote articles – in Arabic – about the crimes of the Nazis in Germany and of the Fascists in Italy. They collaborated with anti-Nazi Arab liberals and socialists. They voiced their opposition against teachers who spread Nazi propaganda at school and demanded they be fired. Germany was not able to screen propaganda films in Baghdad because the movie theaters – which were owned by Jews – refused to screen them. Jews resisted during the days of the Farhud as well. They poured hot oil on the rioters, threw stones, and hopped from rooftop to rooftop to save their lives.

    And there’s another story from the Farhud that deserves telling: the bravery of Muslims during the crisis. The wealthy Jewish neighborhoods were not targeted in the onslaught. Those who were hurt were the poor Jewish neighborhoods. Those who were saved lived in mixed neighborhoods – often because their Muslim neighbors risked their lives to save them. Recollections of Jews, letters by Zionist emissaries, and police reports praise those neighbors and friends. A 70-year-old woman who called on all her Jewish neighbors to stay with her; Muslims who pretended to live in Jewish homes to protect Jewish property; a neighborhood hoodlum who not only hid Jews but also forced the grocer to bring them food; Iraqis who bribed rioters and threatened them with weapons – all in order to rebuff the mob. The stories show the Farhud was not only characterized by looting, murder and incitement but also by the keeping of certain social norms by which Jewish friends and neighbors were seen a precious family members, as well as by heroic and touching stories of rescue.

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #78 - June 02, 2015, 09:57 AM

    The 'Iranian Schindler' who saved Jews from the Nazis
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #79 - June 02, 2015, 11:44 AM

    The 'Iranian Schindler' who saved Jews from the Nazis

    well this should go in to that other folder on Israel .. thank you for that news link zeca..

    Do not let silence become your legacy.. Question everything   
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #80 - June 03, 2015, 09:24 PM

    Sanskrit to Arabic translation and Buddhist influence on early medieval Islam

    Kevin van Bladel - The Bactrian background of the Barmakids

    Kevin van Bladel - Eighth-Century Indian Astronomy in the Two Cities of Peace

    Other articles by Kevin van Bladel
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #81 - June 03, 2015, 11:03 PM

    Maria Mavroudi - Byzantium and the Arabs in the Sixth Century

    Maria Mavroudi - Greek Language and Education under Early Islam

    Other articles by Maria Mavroudi
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #82 - June 06, 2015, 08:55 AM

    I'm not sure about the reliability of this but it raises some interesting questions

    Marcin Grodzki - Problems of Historiographic Sources Concerning the Early Islamic History of Al-Andalus
    The stream of historical revisionism within the Orientalist scholarship has offered in recent years a number of intriguing theories attempting to undermine some of the conventional concepts of the Arab-Muslim early history and religious tradition. Regardless of their actual scholarly value, they do shed light on various methodological problems concerning the critical research on early the Islamic historiography, raise sensitive and stimulating questions, and encourage to think possibly of revising certain axioms of knowledge about that epoch. This paper endeavours to present briefly an alternative image of the arrival of Islam on the Iberian Peninsula, as emerging from research by the revisionist school of West-European scholars called Inārah. Their controversial theory involving, among others, historical and dogmatic aspects of the development of Islam in Andalusia, disputes the generally accepted version of historical events beginning with the 8th century C.E. which is largely based on the traditional sources of Arabic historiography.

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #83 - June 06, 2015, 10:14 AM

    the Muslim empire has been portrayed as the hapless victim of European machinations, driven into the world conflict by overbearing powers eager to expedite its demise and gobble up its lands.

    Zeca, funnily enough this has echoes of current Japanese revisionism, only they go further - their Asian invasions (including the Rape of Nanking) were wars of liberation against Western imperialists.

    The prime minister and most of the government believe this...

    ...and I have chosen to live here. Mug.
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #84 - June 06, 2015, 10:59 AM

    ^This reminds me of a quote in Benedict Anderson's 'Imagined Communities' from a Japanese writer in the 1920s. I don't have the book to hand, but as I remember it was making an anti-imperialist case for Japanese nationalism, and we all know how that turned out. The gap between anti-imperialist nationalism and fascism is sometimes hard to discern.

    Edit: I just checked and the book's online (and worth reading):
    How plausible then to argue that, for Japan to be accepted as 'great,' she too should turn Tenno into Emperor and launch overseas adventures, even if she was late to the game and had a lot of catching up to do. Few things give one a sharper sense of the way these residues impinged on the consciousness of the reading population than the following formulation by the radical-nationalist ideologue and revolutionary Kita Ikki (1884-1937), in his very influential Nihon Kaizo Hoan Taiko [Outline for the Reconstruction of Japan], published in 1924:33
    As the class struggle within a nation is waged for the readjustment of unequal distinctions, so war between nations for an honorable cause will reform the present unjust distinctions. The British Empire is a millionaire possessing wealth all over the world; and Russia is a great landowner in occupation of the northern half of the globe. Japan with her scattered fringe [sic] of islands is one of the proletariat, and she has the right to declare war on the big monopoly powers. The socialists of the West contradict themselves when they admit the right of class struggle to the proletariat at home and at the same time condemn war, waged by a proletariat among nations, as militarism and aggression ... If it is permissible for the working class to unite to overthrow unjust authority by bloodshed, then unconditional approval should be given to Japan to perfect her army and navy and make war for the rectification of unjust international frontiers. In the name of rational social democracy Japan claims possession of Australia and Eastern Siberia.

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #85 - June 11, 2015, 11:03 PM

    New book: Jeanne-Nicole Mellon Saint-Laurent - Missionary Stories and the Formation of the Syriac Churches

    Read the first chapter: Saint Thomas, Missionary Apostle to India
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #86 - June 11, 2015, 11:39 PM

    New book: Muhsin J. al-Musawi - The Medieval Islamic Republic of Letters
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #87 - June 12, 2015, 12:04 AM

    What does Tom Holland mean when he says that the law of apostasy in Islam is of Sasanian origin? Why not Roman or other origin?
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #88 - June 12, 2015, 12:40 AM

    I think under the Sasanians there was a death penalty for apostasy from Zoroastrianism. I'm not entirely sure of my facts here though. I don't think the Romans really had the equivalent for apostasy from Christianity.
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #89 - June 12, 2015, 09:44 AM

    Candan Badem - The Question of the Equality of Non-Muslims in the Ottoman Empire during the Crimean War

    Candan Badem - The Impact of the Crimean War on the Ottoman Non-Muslim Religious Communities

    Candan Badem - The Ottomans and the Crimean War (dissertation)

    Other articles by Candan Badem
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