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 Topic: Random Islamic History Posts

 (Read 47388 times)
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  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #270 - November 28, 2016, 12:06 PM

    Call for papers

    The Origins of the Islamic State: Sovereignty and Power in the Middle Ages - February 16th-17th 2017, UCL

    I wonder any one  of CEMB presently active   "Z guys "   Cheesy  attending  that meeting?? If not.,  common write to  dr.  Corisande Fenwick   some 250 words of an abstract   before dec-4...  still 6 days left....

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #271 - November 29, 2016, 07:05 PM

    Postcards from Tunisia, 1899:
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #272 - December 05, 2016, 06:48 PM

    The World of Islam: Culture, Religion and Politics (podcasts by Amine Tais)
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #273 - December 06, 2016, 04:58 PM

    Hieroglyphic inscription from Tayma, the first found in the Arabian peninsula
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #274 - December 10, 2016, 06:12 PM

    I wonder any one  of CEMB presently active   "Z guys "   Cheesy  attending  that meeting?? If not.,  common write to  dr.  Corisande Fenwick   some 250 words of an abstract   before dec-4...  still 6 days left....

    Hey, I tried!
    Several scholars have noted ‘Abd al-Malik’s role in founding an Islamic State, in the 70s AH / 690s CE from Egypt to Khurasan. He named this the Caliphate, and advertised his own status on his coins and through his court's poetry. "Caliph" meant God's vicar on Earth, in the way of Biblical David as absolute monarch. ‘Abd al-Malik before and after he took command faced opponents; among the latter, the mutineer ‘Abd al-Rahman Ibn al-Ash’ath. Ibn al-Ash’ath during his own command over Iraq and Iran minted his own coins and promoted his own poets. These named him “God’s Advocate (Nasir Allah)”, in the way of Allah's Book and the Sunna. This counter-regime thereby founded its legitimacy upon an interpretation of Islamic Scriptures, which it had from an alliance with anti-Umayyad qurra’ and jurists. Where some of his men sought to overthrow the Caliph, Ibn al-Ash’ath did not: his ambition was to bind Caliphal command to an independent Islamic Law, through an official position with veto authority. The ideal Nasir would then function much like a Roman Republican Tribune. Although this attempt failed, and the Muslims never raised another Nasir; later jurists would reach a compromise with a later dynasty to limit the Caliphate's rule.

    They didn't accept it. Oh well. Maybe next time!
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #275 - December 20, 2016, 05:12 PM

    Sixteenth-century miniature painting by Nasuh Al-Matrakî depicting the city of Aleppo
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #276 - December 24, 2016, 02:42 PM

    The militia protecting Leptis Magna
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #277 - December 25, 2016, 06:20 PM

    If caliph means vicar of god, is caliphate a copy of papacy - the pope being the vicar of Christ?

    Did Islam nick its theological and imperial structures?

    When you are a Bear of Very Little Brain, and you Think of Things, you find sometimes that a Thing which seemed very Thingish inside you is quite different when it gets out into the open and has other people looking at it.

    A.A. Milne,

    "We cannot slaughter each other out of the human impasse"
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #278 - December 28, 2016, 11:05 AM

    If caliph means vicar of god, is caliphate a copy of papacy - the pope being the vicar of Christ?

    No the title has changed over centuries to mean what it does in modern time. The Pope was a general title that multiple Bishops had at the same time. It was not a title of supremacy or primacy over an organized church as a whole. Early Christianity primacy of the Church  is claimed to be placed in the position of Bishop of Rome based on a few early source from the 2nd and 3rd centuries and Rome support later as a accepted then later state-religion. Rather the titles and level of authority was merged  and developed slowly over centuries ending in the 11 century. One must typically be a Catholic to accept the legitimacy of the Bishop of Rome being the Vicar of Christ. Non-Catholic's have vary views from illegitimate to being a tool of the Devil to being the Anti-Christ.

    Keep in mind the basic relationship between the Pope and Vicar of Christ are linked to Peter. If you accept the Gospels and Paul's letters Jesus told Peter he was "The Rock" and the other 11 Apostles accepted him as their leader. The Quran does not establish a successor in this manner nor as direct.

    Did Islam nick its theological and imperial structures?

    I doubt it as per the points above. Byzantium didn't support primacy of Rome but split power between 5 major locations as per previous Roman systems. As Byzantium declined it lost 3 of these locations. Alexandria, Jerusalem and Antioch to the Islamic Empire. It lost Rome as it could not maintain control in Italy. Rome shifted it allegiance to Charlemagne breaking the last tie to the old systems. This process took centuries in which the title of Caliph already far more established. 
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #279 - January 01, 2017, 12:44 PM

    Peter Adamson - 20 rules for history of philosophy
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #280 - January 01, 2017, 01:08 PM

    Peter Adamson - 20 rules for history of philosophy

    I casually read through it that is a good one zeca., and I like what is there in point 18.. I always had/have problems in convincing people  of  Philosophical backgrounds  from Indian subcontinent  ..thanks

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #281 - January 01, 2017, 03:51 PM

    Yes point 18 struck me as well and maybe it's worth quoting in full.

    Rule 18 for history of philosophy: don't essentialize

    In reading about Indian philosophy for the podcast I have been struck that, especially in older secondary literature, you'll come across claims like "an interest in the self is fundamental to the Indian worldview" or "non-violence is deeply rooted within the humanism of Indian culture." Such claims, made by both Indian and non-Indian scholars, are usually meant as compliments. But to my mind they are reductive and, to be frank, silly. In one case, which actually inspired me to devise this new rule, an author said that non-violence (ahimsa) was fundamental to the Indian worldview, so that the spectacular and tragic violence of mid-20th-century Indian history must have been somehow a violation or abberation of Indians' true nature! That looks suspiciously like a theory that is immune to counterevidence. One sees this with other cultures too. I've often seen - and not only in older literature - remarks that Islam is, or isn't, a "religion of peace," is "intolerant" or "tolerant," etc.

    The truth is that cultures, including religious cultures, are complex and marked by internal disagreement, and they develop over time. So we should see them as historical phenomena, not as having some sort of essential character that is acquired by all the adherents of a given religion or members of a given culture.

    Probably it is easier to make this point about cultures or geographical regions than religions. It seems just evidently ridiculous to suppose that the population of India has, in general, had a commitment or even tendency to any particular philosophical view or ethical maxim from the time of the Upanisads down to the current day. Lurking below the surface here is our urge to stereotype - just as Italians are emotional and germans love discipline, so Indians are supposedly fascinated by the self and committed to non-violence.

    With religion, things are trickier. I think I would have to admit that someone who is actually a Muslim might have a stake in what Islam "really is committed to," e.g. on the basis that there are correct and incorrect interpretations of the Koran and hadith. But I see no reason for a non-Muslim, or even a Muslim historian of philosophiy who is writing in his or her capacity as a historian, to think in these terms. Rather the question should be, "what have actual Muslims in such-and-such a period believed about their religion?" Anyone who's dipped into the Islamic world episodes of the podcast knows that the answer to that is as varied as the thinkers that I covered, to say nothing of those I didn't.

    This matters for the history of philosophy in particular because of the widespread tendency to expect that certain (especially so-called "non-western") philosophical traditions will have a distinctive, essential character - more "spiritual", more "determinist," or whatever. This is a bad approach. We are much more likely to discover tensions and disagreements within a tradition of any significant historical scope, than we are to discover some kind of enduring character that marks all thought from within that tradition. And supposing that frequently recurring ideas within a culture somehow derive from the "innate character" of that culture is lazy, and a way of avoiding the more interesting question: what historical or intellectual reasons underlie the prevalence of such ideas?

    Peter Adamson's podcasts on philosophy in the Islamic world:

    And his book:

    Reviewed here:

  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #282 - January 01, 2017, 07:15 PM

    New book

    Suleiman Mourad - The Mosaic of Islam
    Suleiman Mourad, an introduction:
    I am also becoming interested in projects directed to a broad and non-specialist audience. The Mosaic of Islam: A Conversation with Perry Anderson (Verso Books, 2016) is the fruit of one of those initiatives. The idea of the book started as a series of conversations with the great historian Perry Anderson while we were both fellows at the Institut d'Études Avancées de Nantes, and which were continued after that. It covers the Qurʾan and the Muhammad movement, the spread of Islam and the formation of a rich diversity in beliefs and thought, all the way to modernity and the changes/challenges faced by modern Islam, including the rise of conservative movements such as Wahhabism, Salafism, and militant Islam.

    The book is essentially an extended version of this article:

    Suleiman Mourad on

    Video: 'Islam between tolerance and violence':

    Suleiman Mourad picks five books on Islam:

    Review of Mustafa Akyol's 'Islam without Extremes':
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #283 - January 02, 2017, 01:20 PM

    Suleiman Mourad -books and punlications

    Suleiman Ali Mourad
    Professor of Religion
    Contact & Office Hours
    Wright Hall 114
    [email protected]
    Personal website

    Ph.D., M.Phil., Yale University
    M.A., B.S., B.A., American University of Beirut

    Suleiman Ali Mourad was born in Beirut, Lebanon. His family comes from the small village of Benwati in the area of ​​Yizzin in southern Lebanon. He is married to Rana Knio, with whom he has a son and a daughter. [4]
    Mourad studied at the American University of Beirut first mathematics , in which he with the 1990 Bachelor of Arts graduate and later history of the Middle East , in which he reached the BA 1991 the Master of Arts in 1996. [5] 2004 [6 ] he received a doctorate in the United States at the University of Yale in the skilled Arab and Islamic studies
    Teaching and research stays 
    1998-1999 taught Mourad at the Faculty of Religious Studies of the University of Yale from 2000 to 2001 at the Faculty of History of the American University of Beirut and from 2002 to 2005 at the Faculty of Religion at Middlebury College . Since 2005, Mourad has taught as an assistant professor at Smith College. He then became associate professor there and in 2010 finally professor of religion.

    When Alexander von Humboldt Fellow he conducted research from 2013 to 2014 at the Freie Universität Berlin in cooperation with the local Research Unit Intellectual History of the World Islamicate that of the Islamic Studies Professor Sabine Schmidtke is passed. There he did research for Mutazila , a once influential, but later vanished school of Islam, the rationalist interpreted the Koran, that is modeled on the human reason

    Suleiman Ali Mourad received his doctorate from Yale University in 2004. He teaches courses on Islamic history and religion and comparative themes in monotheistic religions (Jerusalem, Holy Land, Crusades).

    Mourad's research and publications focus on medieval Islamic history and religious thought, including jihad ideology, sacredness of Jerusalem, Qur'anic studies, and the presentation of Jesus and Mary in the Qur'an and Islamic tradition.

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #284 - January 02, 2017, 10:19 PM

    Ofir Haim, Michael Shankar and Sharof Kurbanov - The Earliest Arabic Documents Written on Paper: Three Letters from Sanjar-Shah (Tajikistan)
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #285 - January 04, 2017, 09:30 AM

    Julia Phillips Cohen - Oriental by Design: Ottoman Jews, Imperial Style, and the Performance of Heritage
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #286 - January 04, 2017, 12:25 PM

    Ofir Haim, Michael Shankar and Sharof Kurbanov - The Earliest Arabic Documents Written on Paper: Three Letters from Sanjar-Shah (Tajikistan)

    "Sanjar-Shah ..... Sanjar-Shah  and Tajikistan ".....................  There was NO Tajikistan  during the times of that Persian Sanjar-Shah  dear zeca..

    at best you can say that he was from  so-called  Khorasan    Now   we have  ISLAMIC HEROES  running wild around  south and southeast Asia in the  name of  "Khorasan Heroes of Islam" to cut the throats of innocents and journalists that report around that area  with this jihad flag

    Islamic history is totally  screwdup

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #287 - January 05, 2017, 10:27 AM

    Peter Adamson - The legacy of Islamic philosophy
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #288 - January 05, 2017, 11:20 AM

    well on that heading  of the  folder "Random Islamic History Posts" let me add this

    New light on Babur's legacy ...  by HAROON KHALID — published in Dawn  about 19 hours ago..  with this picture

    I stood at the threshold of the gurudwara. A small plaque above its wooden door declared that it was Gurudwara Chakki Sahib, Eimanabad. The door of the place of worship was locked, while a Nishan Sahib, the Sikh flag, rose from its courtyard, hoisted on a pole.

    Eimanabad city, close to the Grand Trunk Road, is a splendid repository of history. Structures of several temples, now converted into houses, stand tall and proud amidst the houses. Scattered across it are remnants of exquisite havelis and palaces of nobles who once resided here.

    One of these havelis was that of Malik Bhago, a corrupt noble who was reprimanded by Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, on the holy man’s visit to the city.

    According to legend, Nanak refused to attend the sumptuous feast that Bhago had organised for the priests and Brahmins on the occasion of his son’s wedding, choosing instead to eat at the house of a carpenter, Bhai Lalo. Infuriated, Bhago summoned Nanak to his palace and questioned him over the rebuff.

    Taking some bread from Bhago’s spread, the Guru squeezed it and blood oozed out of it. When he did the same with bread from Bhai Lalo’s house, which he had summoned to the venue, it released milk.]

    The guru explained that this was because the bread of Bhago had been purchased by money accumulated through corrupt means and by exploiting the poor, while Bhai Lalo had earned his money with honesty.[/quote

    A few streets away is the gurudwara Bhai Lalo di Khoi, where Bhai Lalo’s house once stood and where Guru Nanak and his companion, Bhai Mardana, had stayed. The metal door to this gurudwara was also locked.

    Before the the city of Gujranwala emerged as a major trade hub, Eimanabad was one of the most important cities east of Lahore, lying on the route connecting Kabul in Peshawar to Lahore and Delhi. With the rise of Gujranwala, Eminabad became a small town.

    In the first half of the 16th century, Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, crossed the Chenab river, which flows through parts of India and Punjab (in present-day Pakistan), in search of new territory to capture. He came upon a massive city and forces unleashed terror on it, killing thousands of citizens and imprisoning many more.

    The city in question was Saidpur, its name later changed to Eimanabad on the orders of its new king. Nanak’s hagiography suggests he was in Saidpur when Babur captured the city. Along with other citizens, he too was imprisoned and forced to work on a stone mill.

    According to one of the retellings of this story, Nanak, a saint, did not want to use his hands to rotate the stone mill and is said to have used his magical powers to make the mill rotate on its own.

    This is ironic, given that Nanak, in his poetry, has spoke vehemently against superstitious beliefs on magic. Once, when asked if he could perform magic, he is believed to have sarcastically said:

    Dwell then in flame uninjured,
    Remain unharmed amid eternal ice,
    Make blocks of stone thy food,
    Spurn the solid earth before thee with thy foot,
    Weigh the heavens in a balance
    Then ask thou that Nanak perform wonders

    When the guards at the prison saw Nanak’s purported magic, they informed Babur, who summoned the Sikh guru to his court and asked for his blessings so he could be successful in his future conquests.

    Nanak refused to bless the Mughal king, questioning his audacity to seek his blessings after conquering the land where he lived. However, even without the guru’s blessings, Babur succeeded in his conquests and in spreading the Mughal Empire.

    Today, the Gurudwara Chakki Sahib is located at the spot where Nanak was imprisoned and performed this “magical” deed.
    Impression of an emperor

    Almost 500 years after Nanak and Babur’s meeting, India and Pakistan are divided on the Mughal emperor’s legacy. For Hindu nationalists in India, Babur is an imperialist who plundered their land, curbed religious freedoms and suppressed their traditions.

    Some Hindus believe that the Babri Masjid, or the Mosque of Babur in Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh, was built after demolishing a structure on the Ram Janmabhoomi, or the birthplace of Lord Ram, making it a major bone of contention.

    Its demolition on December 6, 1992, by a group of Hindu kar sevaks, is one of the most important political events in India’s recent history and triggered communal riots all over the country.

    In contrast, Pakistan, perhaps more so after 1992, began to embrace Babur. It suited the State’s historical framework – the need to depict the superiority of Muslim culture over the Hindu civilisation.

    Much like the invaders Muhammad Bin Qasim, Mahmud Ghaznvi and Mohammad Ghori, Babur became a symbol of Muslim nationalism that culminated in the creation of Pakistan.

    Several roads and chowks in the different cities of the country are named after the first Mughal Emperor. The State has even named a missile after him and just two weeks ago, Pakistan tested an enhanced version of the medium-range and subsonic cruise Babur missile.

    As both the states interpret Babur to suit their narratives, I look towards Guru Nanak and what he had to say about the conqueror.

    His poem Babur Bani, included in the Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikhism’s central scripture and its 11th and eternal guru, beautifully captures the destruction that the king left at Eimanabad in its aftermath.

    He writes:

    Bringing the marriage party of sin,
    Babar has invaded from Kabul,
    demanding our land as his wedding gift, O Lalo...
    ...The Qazis and the Brahmins have lost their roles,
    and Satan now conducts the marriage rites, O Lalo...
    ...The wedding songs of murder are sung, O Nanak,
    and blood is sprinkled instead of saffron, O Lalo.

    The poem mentions that his forces did not differentiate between Muslims and Hindus. Both fell victim to his wrath, which Nanak sarcastically calls “justice” of god.

    For Nanak, Babur was not a Muslim king bent upon destroying the Hindu culture and neither was an Islamic national who wanted to spread his religion over a the land.

    He was simply a king motivated by greed and glory, so much so that anyone, irrespective of religion, who came in his way, was destroyed.

    well that is what HAROON KHALID writes today..

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #289 - January 05, 2017, 10:41 PM

    Rozina Ali - The erasure of Islam from the poetry of Rumi

    Some comments

    Edit: a quote from Rumi
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #290 - January 06, 2017, 12:43 AM

    Peter Webb - Poetry and the Early Islamic Historical Tradition: Poetry and narratives of the Battle of ṢiffīnṢiffīn
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #291 - January 07, 2017, 12:21 PM

    Tom Holland on Prophet Muhammad - The Christopher Hitchens Lecture at the Hays Festival

    well let us think answers for Sajjad Rizvi questions...

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #292 - January 08, 2017, 11:58 AM

    Emilio Gonzalez-Ferrin - Aaron W. Hughes and the War of Authenticities
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #293 - January 09, 2017, 07:28 AM

    Rozina Ali - The erasure of Islam from the poetry of Rumi


    Rozina Ali ....Rozina Ali ... LUCKY AMERICAN happend to  born in  Islam and in US of A..  She would have been a Kaffir girl if she lived in her parents hometown ..

    But I would  say and  ask Rozina-Ali.,   the poetry of Rumi  is all right  as 1000s of artists born in slam that wrote as good poems as Rumi...  but but question is .,  WHAT WOULD SHE DO WITH QURAN AND HADITH??

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #294 - January 11, 2017, 11:26 AM

    Engin Deniz Akarli - The Long Peace: Ottoman Lebanon, 1861–1920;brand=ucpress
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #295 - January 14, 2017, 11:58 AM

    Devin Stewart reviews Chase Robinson's Islamic Historiography
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #296 - January 14, 2017, 12:03 PM

    Chase Robinson - Islamic Civilization in Thirty Lives
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #297 - January 14, 2017, 12:33 PM

    Chase Robinson - Islamic Civilization in Thirty Lives


    The religious thinkers, political leaders, law-makers, writers and philosophers of the early Muslim world helped to shape the 1,400-year-long development of today's second-largest world religion. But who were these people? What do we know of their lives, and the ways in which they influenced their societies? Chase F. Robinson draws on the long tradition in Muslim scholarship of commemorating in writing the biographies of notable figures, but weaves these ambitious lives together to create a rich narrative of early Islamic civilization, from the Prophet Muhammad to fearsome Tamerlane. Beginning in Islam's heartland, Mecca, we move across Arabia to follow Islam's journey across North Africa, as far as Spain in the West, and eastwards through Central and East Asia; we see the rise and fall of Islamic states through the political and military leaders working to secure peace or expand their power, and, within this political climate, the development of Islamic law, scientific thought and literature through the words of the scholars who devoted themselves to these pursuits. Alongside the famous characters who coloured this landscape, including Muhammad's controversial cousin, 'Ali; the first Sultan of Egypt, Saladin; and the poet Rumi, the reader will also meet less well-known figures, such as Shajar al-Durr, slave-turned-Sultana of Egypt, and Ibn Fadlan, whose travels in Eurasia brought first-hand accounts of the Volka Vikings to the Abbasid Caliph.

    Stories are stories .. writing  Middle Eastern folk tales  such as "Arabian Nights"  or "Aladdin Magic lamp" should not  equalled  with "History of Islam  in its true colors with facts "...

    and..and ...Sarah Chayes  please stop moving/rotating that chair  finmad

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #298 - January 16, 2017, 12:52 AM

    Arabic graffiti from Knidos and Kos:
  • Random Islamic History Posts
     Reply #299 - January 16, 2017, 02:19 AM

    In 2013, this was found:

    My translation (aided by Google - I did this in a hurry):
    The Franco-Saudi mission in charge of epigraphic surveys around the city of Najrân (south of Saudi Arabia) has recently made an astonishing discovery. At the place called al-Murakkab, 30 kilometers to the east of Najran, some fifty graffiti from the Islamic era have been found on rockheaps surrounding a natural circle. The inscriptions all belong to the register of the angular archaic kufic (7th and 8th centuries) and some are paleographically very accomplished (processes of line-justification, underlining). Among these epigraphic texts, two have particularly attracted the  mission's attention: graffiti clearly mentioning the name of'Umar b. al-Khattab, companion of the prophet Muḥammad and second caliph died in 24/644. The first graffito is an invocation recalling the attachment of the character to God ('Umar b. al-Khattab yathiq bi-Llah) and the second is a simple signature bearing the same name and found in a natural landslide having formed a cave. During the November 2012 surveys, the site appeared to us as a sort of sanctuary of the early days of Islam: in addition to the 'Umar mention, we noticed a graffito dated 59 AH (678-679) beside which stands a character engraved on the rock, life-size, raising his hands above his head (so-called position of the prayer). It will be necessary to analyze all these elements to their true value by putting them beyond doubt in relation : the site forming a natural circle, several caves and balsams, the signature of one of the most notable figures of primitive Islam, a dating of 59/678, multiple figurative representations.

    More than the invocation as such, the signature remains rather intriguing. Generally, signatures of this type, when accompanied by no eulogy, title or invocation, tend rather to be regarded as autographs, affixed by their author. If this is the famous 'Umar b. al-Khattab, companion and caliph, it becomes necessary to call to mind his presence near Najran, before or after his election to the caliphate, before or after the Hegira, before or after the advent of Islam.

    Anyway, the ancient Kufic graffiti citing 'Umar [b. al-Khattab] are now three in number in Arabia, making him an unavoidable historical figure of the first decades of Islam.

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