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 Topic: Qur'anic studies today

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  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9870 - December 31, 2020, 01:05 AM

    A link to download Shoemaker's Apocalypse of Empire for free.

    https://fr.scribd.com/document/441670716/Stephen-J-Shoemaker-the-Apocalypse-of-Empire-I-Z-lib-org#logout

  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9871 - January 01, 2021, 11:42 AM


    Hello Marc_S  glad to see you  back with a Shoemaker book link from  scribd ., did you download and read it??  any snippets that you could share here??




    both of his books are impressive

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d7cO6mztBp4

    Do not let silence become your legacy.. Question everything   
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9872 - January 01, 2021, 09:16 PM

    New Books Network podcast: https://newbooksnetwork.com/muhammad-and-the-empires-of-faith
    Quote
    Contemporary historians have searched for the historical Muhammad along many paths. In Muhammad and the Empires of Faith: The Making of the Prophet of Islam (University of California Press, 2020), Sean Anthony, Professor of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures at Ohio State University, recommends employing non-Muslim and Muslim sources in tandem in order to view a fuller landscape of Late Antiquity. Anthony revisits the earliest Arabic materials, including the Qur’an, epigraphic and archeological evidence, as well as contemporaneous non-Muslim sources, and accounts preserved in the sira-maghazi literature. These make up the four cardinal sources for his historical and philological method. Anthony’s book both introduces a comprehensive portrait of the sources available for understanding Muhammad in his time period, as well as demonstrates how we can arrive at new insights through a “lateral” reading across the Late Antique period. In our conversation we discuss the earliest evidence mentioning Muhammad, non-Muslim testimonies, narratives of Muhammad under the Umayyads, reinvestigating Muhammad as a merchant, the role of the scholarly tradition in recording biographical accounts, the sira of Ibn Ishaq, how Abbasid imperial discourses shaped biographical narratives, literary conventions and cultural aesthetics of the late antique hagiographical writings, comparative readings across Late Antiquity, and future directions for historians.

  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9873 - January 02, 2021, 12:51 AM

    Hello Marc_S  glad to see you  back with a Shoemaker book link from  scribd ., did you download and read it??  any snippets that you could share here??


    I will read it in the coming weeks.
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9874 - January 02, 2021, 03:32 PM

    I will read it in the coming weeks.

    Hi Marc_S .,   not only reading do not forget to put some snippets of it here ..  well let me add this review of that book from  dr. Joseph Lipp ...   

    Quote
    The Apocalypse of Empire is a study of eschatology in late antiquity with particular reference to early Islam. It is underpinned by two convictions: first, early Islam must be contextualized in the broader culture of the late ancient Near East, and second, early Islam must be examined using the same historico-critical methods as those we have used in the study of other religions for well over a century.

    The book treats two main topics. The first topic is the eschatological context of early Islam. Here Shoemaker focuses on notions of eschatology and empire and demonstrates that in late antiquity, imperial conquest and eschatology often went hand in hand. Moreover, eschatological expectations were high among Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians, and Muslims alike. Second, on its way to contextualizing early Islam, the book looks at the broad history of apocalypticism in the religions of the ancient world, including Judaism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and, briefly, paganism. Shoemaker argues against a widespread modern claim that apocalypse as a genre and worldview was naturally anti-imperial.

    The book’s central idea and most important claim is that “earliest Islam was a movement driven by urgent eschatological belief that focused on the conquest—or liberation—of the biblical Holy Land” (1). This statement contains the two main topics mentioned above: eschatology on the one hand and the eschatologically-motivated imperial ambitions within early Islam on the other. In order to flesh out this claim, the book covers a lot of ground—a good eight centuries and dozens of documents in Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and Arabic—and Shoemaker is eager to announce that the book is partly a work of synthesis, for which he will rely on the work of many scholars outside his particular expertise.

    The basic structure of the book is as follows. First, it introduces apocalypticism and eschatology as objects of study in the academy. Second, it discusses eschatology in the ancient Mediterranean and Near East before Islam. And third, it analyzes Islam within the framework of the previous two discussions. The whole consists of an introduction, six chapters, and a conclusion.

    The introduction discusses the book’s origin and lays out its plan. The book grew organically out of repeated questions put to Shoemaker after his lectures on an eschatological interpretation of Muhammad. Shoemaker had made such claims in his previous book, The Death of a Prophet; confronted with actual persons and their skepticism, he felt the need to make the case thoroughly, and this book is the result.

    The first chapter covers theoretical and historical ground. Theoretically, it reviews scholarly literature on apocalypticism as resistance to imperial rule (especially Horsley, with a citation of Portier-Young),1 and discusses definitions of apocalypticism. Shoemaker himself employs the well-known definitions established by Collins et al.2 Historically, this approach looks first at ancient Jewish apocalyptic texts from the Greek and Roman eras that do evince an anti-imperial outlook, including those from Qumran.

    Jesus, Paul, and the Apocalypse of John receive a brief analysis. And in the final stretch of the chapter, Shoemaker looks at non-Jewish and non-Christian sources that bear on the question of eschatology and, in particular, two topoi: a succession of empires leading up to a final judgment and the notion of an eschatological king.

    Chapters Two and Three look at the Roman and Byzantine empires, respectively. After a period of Christian quietism (excepting John’s Apocalypse), Christians in the third-century begin to view the Roman empire positively. A new idea arose in late antiquity: the Christian Roman empire is the New Israel, and Constantinople is the New Jerusalem. The Roman Empire is seen as the final world power that will hand over ultimate power to God at the eschaton. The emperor is a key actor in all this, and some texts develop the notion of a mythical Last Roman Emperor, who will conquer all God’s enemies and then travel to Jerusalem where he will lay down his crown and abdicate power to God.

    In sixth- and seventh-century Byzantium, we arrive at a point where we can really begin to speak about the Near East as the religious and political backdrop of early Islam. Shoemaker adduces many texts and events that demonstrate rising eschatological expectations, but two are of sufficient weight to mention here.

    First, the discourse around Heraclius’ return of the True Cross to Jerusalem calls to mind the eschatological myth of the Last Roman Emperor. Second, a passage from the Qur’an (18.83-102) shows that Muhammad’s religious movement was in contact with the imperial eschatology of late antiquity (via the Syriac Alexander Legend).

    Chapter Four demonstrates that the notion that the end of the world would come via imperial triumph permeated the Jewish and Zoroastrian religious cultures of the late ancient Near East. In the case of Judaism, while early Jewish apocalypses (e.g., 1 Enoch and Daniel) viewed empires negatively, late ancient Judaism regards empires more positively, as agents of divine restoration at the eschaton. Likewise, Sasanian rulers believed that they were acting out Zoroastrian mythological scripts in which the end of the world would be realized via the Persian empire.

    Chapters Five and Six turn to Islam. Shoemaker reviews scholarship on differing interpretations of Muhammad and his mission (e.g., as a prophet of social justice or a pragmatic political reformer) and then demonstrates that Muhammad and his earliest followers seem to have been expecting the end of the world to occur at any time, probably within their own lifetimes. Such eschatological urgency, and a belief that the very formation of their community partly constituted the inauguration of the eschaton, fueled their conquest of the Near East.

     Chapter Six looks at the early Muslim conquests, focusing especially on the liberation of the Holy Land from infidels as an essential goal of the Muslims’ apocalyptic empire.

    In the Conclusion, Shoemaker argues that, although the findings of his book may not accord with (a) those, whether scholars and otherwise, who wish to view Muhammad in a more positive light, and (b) the values of modern liberalism, nevertheless “we must confront the past for what it was and in some instances refuse to allow its antiquated and often severe values to define modern norms” (184).

    The argument of this book is compelling. Based on its findings, there can be little doubt that Muhammad and his earliest followers were driven by an urgent imperial eschatology that featured long-standing topoi from the Mediterranean and Near East: a belief that earthly empires could or should help usher in the eschaton or move it along, the role of a Last Emperor and a Last Empire, and an obsessive focus on the Holy Land as a crucial place in the drama of the Last Day(s). Viewed in the light of their cultural milieu, Muhammad et al. are seen as playing out familiar eschatological scripts.

    Shoemaker marshals dozens and dozens of documents, evenly covering the entire time period of his study, with little to no gaps in time or space, and handles his texts with impressive philological skill. The book deftly zooms back and forth between the forest and the trees, making broad claims while also arguing about minutiae in dating and reconstructing texts. Moreover, it is thoroughly documented and up to date on modern scholarship.

    We should point out, however, that his evidence consists almost entirely of (highly literary) texts, and so at some level the book could be seen as more of an intellectual or cultural history of classical and late antiquity. And yet Shoemaker claims to be making historical assertions, that is, he aims to make a point about why certain historical actors actually performed certain actions in the past. Here his study is helped by numerous moments when he connects ideas in these texts with things that actual people did. This provides a proof of concept and then some: the idea is that not only can we imagine people guiding imperial policy in such and such a way based on eschatological beliefs, but we have actual historical examples of the ancients doing so. From this perspective, Muhammad’s imperial eschatology is in no way unusual and is eminently plausible. Moreover, the book is not simply a work of intellectual history, but of historical individuals.

    While I found this book both fascinating and important, nevertheless, as a classicist, I have been challenged to think of who might most benefit from reading it—or, perhaps more puzzling, who might actually read it. It is highly specialized, so its readership will likely be limited to scholars rather than (even the most dedicated) lay readers. I could see advisors assigning parts of it to very advanced graduate students in niche areas. Beyond this, scholars interested in the origins of Islam will have to engage with Shoemaker’s work, here and in his The Death of a Prophet (see Chapter Three, ‘The Beginnings of Islam and the End of Days: Muhammad as Eschatological Prophet’). Scholars of late antiquity especially interested in politics and religion will want to consider how Shoemaker’s demonstration of the widespread nature of eschatological beliefs fits into their current understanding of the cultural milieu. Scholars of Christianity (of any time and place) will benefit from asking how Islam’s eschatology and eschatological origins are similar to and different from Christianity’s. As classicists, we have to wonder: is eschatology limited to Abrahamic traditions (and the Stoics)?

    Aside from the book’s main thrust about the connection between imperial ambition and eschatological belief in Late Antiquity, its most important contributions right now are Shoemaker’s statements, in the Conclusion, about ancient realities and modern sentiments. He very deftly anticipates criticism from those with a personal stake in this or that vision of Muhammad, clearly lays out the goals of a scholar, and manages to elicit further discussion among all parties without disrespecting the former or compromising the principles of the latter. In religious studies, Bruce Lincoln’s “Theses on Method” has become required reading;3 to this I would add Shoemaker’s Conclusion. Frankly, I would urge every scholar of antiquity to read this book’s final pages.

    I found one typo, of no gravity: p. 71, “has to with his classicizing style” should be “has to do with his classicizing style.”

    Notes

    1. R. A. Horsley, Revolt of the Scribes: Resistance and Apocalyptic Origins (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2010) and A. Portier-Young, Apocalypse Against Empire: Theologies of Resistance in Early Judaism (Grand Rapids, Mich.: W. B. Eerdmans, 2011).

    2. J. J. Collins, “Introduction: Toward the Morphology of a Genre”, in Apocalypse: The Morphology of a Genre, edited by J. J. Collins (Semeia 14; Missoula, Mont.: Scholars Press, 1979), pp. 1-19.

    3. Bruce Lincoln, “Theses on Method”, Method & Theory in the Study of Religion 17 (2005): 8-10, reprinted in Bruce Lincoln, Gods and Demons, Priests and Scholars: Critical Explorations in the History of Religions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015), pp. 1-3.


    well I am more interested in Quran verses that are used by him  to get the conclusion of "Apocalyptical nature of Islam and the characters in it "
    '

    Do not let silence become your legacy.. Question everything   
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9875 - January 04, 2021, 09:32 PM

    If someone wants to read, here is Hagarism online:
    https://www.almuslih.org/Library/Crone,%20P;%20Cook,%20M%20-%20Hagarism.pdf
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9876 - January 04, 2021, 11:13 PM

    If someone wants to read, here is Hagarism online:
    https://www.almuslih.org/Library/Crone,%20P;%20Cook,%20M%20-%20Hagarism.pdf


    Morris is planning an online seminar on Hagarism: https://twitter.com/iandavidmorris/status/1346180753089048580
    Quote
    I was hoping to do a series of these Twitch seminars, but then COVID broke the world and I lost focus. So let’s try some more this year.

    I’d like to start by reading some Hagarism, one of my favourite books and a great text for seminars because it’s so dense.
    ...
    If you’d like to participate in one of these seminars, please get in touch: doesn’t matter if you have a PhD or a GED.

    The format is: my guests and I read a chapter or article beforehand and then we go through it together, untangling the difficult ideas and talking about the world of Early Islam.

  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9877 - January 06, 2021, 12:14 PM

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CG--FQvwccs&feature=emb_title
    Quote
    Originally streamed on Twitch. I'm joined by Taha, Naadirah and Dr Christopher Rose (UT Austin) to discuss an extract from the chronicle of al-Tabari (d. 923). Having dreamt that a "circumcised people" will destroy his realm, the Byzantine emperor Heraclius meets a wealthy foreign merchant who brings news about a prophet in Arabia. What does it mean?

    The extract is on pages 100–104 of The History of al-Tabari, vol. 8, The Victory of Islam, translated by Michael Fishbein.

    https://twitter.com/iandavidmorris/status/1245403375476396036
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9878 - January 06, 2021, 04:54 PM




    TAFSIR IBN JARIR AT-TABARI   Tafsir Al-Tabari...
    Tafsir Al-Tabari........Tafsir Al-Tabari.......    from which version did Ian D. Morris   got that statement 
    Quote
    Originally streamed on Twitch. I'm joined by Taha, Naadirah and Dr Christopher Rose (UT Austin) to discuss an extract from the chronicle of al-Tabari (d. 923). Having dreamt that a "circumcised people" will destroy his realm, the Byzantine emperor Heraclius meets a wealthy foreign merchant who brings news about a prophet in Arabia. What does it mean?

    The extract is on pages 100–104 of The History of al-Tabari, vol. 8, The Victory of Islam, translated by Michael Fishbein

     
    Is it from Egyptian edition or Saudi edition??

    Do not let silence become your legacy.. Question everything   
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9879 - January 07, 2021, 05:26 PM

    Abdulla Galadari - review of Daniel Beck, Evolution of the Early Qur'ān: From Anonymous Apocalypse to Charismatic Prophet

    https://www.academia.edu/41271068/Review_Evolution_of_the_Early_Qurān_From_Anonymous_Apocalypse_to_Charismatic_Prophet_by_Daniel_Beck
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9880 - January 10, 2021, 01:37 AM

    Simcha Gross - When the Jews Greeted Ali: Sherira Gaon's Epistle in Light of Arabic and Syriac Historiography

    https://www.academia.edu/33854404/When_the_Jews_Greeted_Ali_Sherira_Gaons_Epistle_in_Light_of_Arabic_and_Syriac_Historiography
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9881 - January 10, 2021, 09:07 AM

    Simcha Gross - When the Jews Greeted Ali: Sherira Gaon's Epistle in Light of Arabic and Syriac Historiography

    https://www.academia.edu/33854404/When_the_Jews_Greeted_Ali_Sherira_Gaons_Epistle_in_Light_of_Arabic_and_Syriac_Historiography

     did you read that ., if you did what is your opinion on that article of  dr. Simcha Gross  dear zeca??

    Quote
    Sherira bar Hanina (Hebrew: שרירא בר חנינא) more commonly known as Sherira Gaon (Hebrew: שרירא גאון; c. 906-c. 1006) was the Gaon of the Academy of Pumbeditha. He was one of the most prominent Geonim of his period, and the father of Hai Gaon, who succeeded him as Gaon. He wrote the Iggeret Rav Sherira Gaon ("[The] Epistle of Rav Sherira Gaon"), a comprehensive history of the composition of the Talmud.

    Sherira was born circa 906 C.E., the descendant, both on his father's and his mother's side, of prominent families, several members of which had occupied the gaonate. His father was Hananiah ben R. Yehudai, also a gaon. Sherira claimed descent from Rabbah b. Abuha, who belonged to the family of the exilarch, thereby claiming descent from the Davidic line. Sherira stated that his genealogy could be traced back to the pre-Bostanaian branch of that family, which, he claimed, on account of the deterioration of the exilarchate had renounced its claims thereto, preferring instead the scholar's life.[3] The seal of his family was a lion, which was said to have been the emblem of the Judean kings


    Simcha Gross other pubs

    Do not let silence become your legacy.. Question everything   
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9882 - January 10, 2021, 10:49 AM

    It’s interesting and I’ve no particular reason to doubt his arguments.
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9883 - January 10, 2021, 02:30 PM

    Peter Webb - Cry me a Jāhiliyya: Muslim Reconstructions of Pre-Islamic Arabian Culture - A Case Study

    https://www.academia.edu/43191616/Cry_me_a_Jāhiliyya_Muslim_Reconstructions_of_Pre_Islamic_Arabian_Culture_A_Case_Study
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9884 - January 10, 2021, 05:21 PM

    It’s interesting and I’ve no particular reason to doubt his arguments.

    It’s interesting and I’ve no particular reason to doubt his arguments.

    ., well I casually read it here and there., but now link is taking time and hung up the PC.,

    what is interesting in it?? what are his arguments?  You agree with Caliph Ali was there and and Jews of Iraq  around the present town fallujah (Iraq) greeted him??

    Quote
    The Jewish Diaspora is often viewed as the paradigm of exile, which implies longing for a place from which a people has been forcibly expelled. This article interprets three sayings by Rav in the Babylonian Talmud as reflecting an alternative ideology, in which living outside the Holy Land is not seen as regrettable or shameful, for God is revealed through the Jewish people’s observance of the Torah and the commandments everywhere. Although the relevant sugya in BT Ta’anit 29a–b opens with catastrophe – the destruction of the Temple – Rav’s three sayings here exude optimism, implying that a good life is attainable wherever Jews reside. Every moment of Torah study is the realization of the “future and hope” promised by the prophet Jeremiah

      https://www.mohrsiebeck.com/fileadmin/user_upload/Zeitschriften/Probehefte/JSQ/2019/JSQ_2017-2.pdf

    Do not let silence become your legacy.. Question everything   
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9885 - January 10, 2021, 05:53 PM

    Quote
    Abstract:
    Sherira Gaon’s Epistle has been the most important source for the study of Babylonian Jewish history, and yet scholars have often relied too heavily on this work. This article argues that Sherira Gaon’s Epistle must first be situated in its contemporary context, which reveals the many historiographical assumptions about the past that Sherira shared with both Arabic and Syriac historiography from the same period. In particular, analysis of Sherira’s account of the Arab Conquest shows that it is not a historically accurate report of the past. Instead, Sherira is indebted to widespread assumptions of his time that viewed the Conquest as a watershed moment. Moreover, his celebrated account about an encounter between Ali ibn Abi Talib and the Jews of a certain town conforms to other apocryphal conquest accounts, composed in order to secure the material and cultural capital derived from such reports.

    Quote
    Claims about Ali granting protection were made by many minority groups under Islamic rule. In a mid-12th-century Arabic East-Syrian Christian work, Mar Emmeh is said to have aided the Muslim conquerors of Mosul, and in return was given a letter – a contract of protection from Ali. Another text grounds certain protections and tax exemptions for Armenian Christians in a meeting between the community’s leaders and the very same Ali ibn Abi Talib. The widespread and varied nature of these contracts and claims explains the increased effort in the eighth and ninth centuries to seek uniformity of dhimmi rights, as traced by Levy-Rubin. The Ali narrative in Sherira’s Iggeret fits well within this literary phenomenon. In fact, it is not the only Jewish text to claim a connection with Ali. We have attestations of other Jewish communities that made the same claim...

     
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9886 - January 11, 2021, 09:24 AM



    this first statement
    Quote
    Sherira Gaon’s Epistle has been the most important source for the study of Babylonian Jewish history, and yet scholars have often relied too heavily on this work

    itself is wrong in that article..

    I don't think I will trust 10th century story teller story on  either Babylonian Jewish history  or on that early Islamic history story of Caliph  Ali ibn Abi Talib  who was 6th/7th century Islamic character ., of course I yet to read that article

    Do not let silence become your legacy.. Question everything   
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9887 - January 12, 2021, 02:29 PM

    Quote
    Simcha Gross - When the Jews Greeted Ali: Sherira Gaon's Epistle in Light of Arabic and Syriac Historiography

    https://www.academia.edu/33854404/When_the_Jews_Greeted_Ali_Sherira_Gaons_Epistle_in_Light_of_Arabic_and_Syriac_Historiography

     and says
    It’s interesting and I’ve no particular reason to doubt his arguments.


     I must say here zeca is right  on that .Simcha Gross article., Now I have access I am reading it 

    Quote
    Abstract:
    Sherira Gaon’s Epistle  has been the most important source for the study of Babylonian Jewish history, and yet scholars have often relied too heavily on this work. This article argues that Sherira Gaon’s Epistle must first be situated in its con-temporary context, which reveals the many historiographical assumptions about the past that Sherira shared with both Arabic and Syriac historiography from the same period. In particular, analysis of Sherira’s account of the Arab Conquest shows that it is not a historically accurate report of the past. Instead, Sherira is indebted to widespread assumptions of his time that viewed the Conquest as a water shed moment. .....

     ,
    well I fully agree with those highlighted words..

    Quote
    Thus, scholars have had to rethink certain previously accepted historical events “supported” (as it were) by ancient textual evidence. Prime examples of this are certain “watershed moments” that are now understood as later constructions that sought to simplify lengthy, complicated and multifaceted historical processes

    Ramsey MacMullen,  Christianity and Paganism in the Fourth to Eighth Centuries


    Ooops I got eat my words., this is actually good publication..  let me print it..

    Do not let silence become your legacy.. Question everything   
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9888 - January 12, 2021, 03:05 PM

    Chapter Twenty-three Christianity from the Fifth to the Eleventh Century

    Quote
    While the Dar al-Islam was prospering, much of Christendom was impoverished and the
    rest of it was under attack. In western Europe the Roman empire had disintegrated, and what
    had once been highly civilized lands entered a long Dark Age. Military and therefore political
    power was in the hands of Germanic warlords, whose territories soon evolved into kingdoms.
    Social and economic conditions deteriorated to a level not seen since before the original Roman
    conquests.


    In the east, the Byzantine empire not only surrendered everything south of the
    Taurus mountains to the Arabians, but also suffered on its western and northern frontiers the
    same kind of barbarian raids and takeovers that had earlier ruined western Europe and Britain.
    Although the Byzantines survived the barbarian onslaught, their empire was much diminished by
    it: from the fifth through the seventh century the Byzantine empire lost not only the Levant,
    Egypt and North Africa to the Arabians, but also most of southeastern Europe to Slavic- or
    Avar-speaking warlords. In the bleakest periods the empire consisted only of Anatolia and, in
    Europe, Constantinople itself and its hinterland.


    that is from chapter 23 of this book


    Do not let silence become your legacy.. Question everything   
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
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