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 Topic: Qur'anic studies today

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  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9150 - May 17, 2020, 02:35 PM



    Hmm...  A New History of Arabia, Written in Stone  That is worth reading 

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9151 - May 17, 2020, 10:25 PM

    Hmm...    A New History of Arabia, Written in Stone  That is worth reading 


    That link doesn’t work - here’s one that does: https://www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/a-new-history-of-arabia-written-in-stone
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9152 - May 17, 2020, 10:45 PM

    Thread: https://mobile.twitter.com/NaqadStudies/status/1261048457793548290
    Quote
    Nehemiah ben Hushiel was a central figure in the Jewish revolt against Heraclius, (614-617 to 625 CE).

    He is best known as a savior figure who appears in many medieval Jewish apocalyptic writings as the Messiah ben Joseph.

  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9153 - May 17, 2020, 11:18 PM

    Philip Wood and Greg Fisher - Arabia and the Late Antique East

    https://www.academia.edu/42295994/Draft_text_Arabia_and_the_Great_Powers
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9154 - May 18, 2020, 09:14 AM

    Thank s for pointing that mistake dear zeca ., let me correct that and add this from....??
    Quote
    https://mobile.twitter.com/PhDniX

    Leiden's Or. 298, the earliest dated Arabic paper manuscript (252 AH/866 CE), a copy of Abū ʿUbayd's (d. 224) Ġarīb al-Ḥadīṯ, is an absolute goldmine of of orthographic archaisms.  This Hadith, for example, is orthographically many similarities to Quranic Arabic.



    that is what PhDniX .. I like that Ph_DniX .... Cheesy ., that is what he  says on that picture ..

    So assuming  that hadith is the................ " earliest dated Arabic paper manuscript (252 AH/866 CE), a copy of Abū ʿUbayd's (d. 224)"........

    then then...   dear Ph_DniX .... Cheesy  .,   ... https://phoenixblog.typepad.com/blog/  .............what about those Quran Manuscripts??   Are they PORK CHOPS?? were they not have earlier than that date  (252 AH/866 CE) Arabic paper manuscripts??

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9155 - May 18, 2020, 11:00 AM

    KERTAS: dataset for automatic dating of ancient Arabic manuscripts by  Kalthoum Adam, Asim Baig, Somaya Al-Maadeed, Ahmed Bouridane & Sherine El-Menshawy
    International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition (IJDAR) volume 21, pages283–290(2018)



    Figure 3 shows a manuscript from the 5th A.H. (11th C.E.) century.

    remarkable.. that golden period of Islam must be renamed as Golden period of Arabic language....and Development of Natural Sciences In Atabic 


    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9156 - May 18, 2020, 11:02 AM

    Yeez - the early manuscripts aren’t on paper.
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9157 - May 18, 2020, 01:35 PM

    Basil Lourié
    https://www.academia.edu/486505/Friday_Veneration_in_the_Sixth-_and_Seventh-Century_Christianity_and_the_Christian_Legends_on_Conversion_of_Na%C4%9Fr%C4%81n
    Friday Veneration in the Sixth- and Seventh-Century Christianity and the Christian Legends on Conversion of Nağrān

    CONTENTS Introduction: a Lost Epistle on Friday 2 Part One: The Calendars of the “Twelve Fridays” 5 1.1. The Twelve Fridays Texts: an Introduction 5 1.2. The Clement Recension of the Twelve Fridays 6 1.3. Eleutherius Recension of the Twelve Fridays: an Introduction 9 1.4. The Twelve Fridays Calendar of the Eleutherius Recension 10 1.5. Eleutherius Recension as a Seventh-Century Apocalyptic Writing 11 1.6. A Jewish Tradition Shared with the Early Islam 14 1.7. Twelve-Friday Tradition in Palestine: John Zosimos 16 1.8. 12-Friday Calendar: a Preliminary Conclusion 17 1.9. A Syriac Legend on the Secret Bishop John and Personified Friday 17 Part Two: St Eleutherius and the Legends on Nağrān 18 2.1. The Text of the Slavonic Story of Eleutherius 18 2.2. Syriac as the Original Language 20 2.2.1. A Friday which is временная (“temporary”) 20 2.2.2. внидоста въ глубокою повѣсть 21 2.2.3. Како ми ся дана сила 21 2.2.4. “Laura” means “Illyria” 22 Note 1: “Šeptail” and a Possibility of Slavonic Translation from Syriac 23 2.3. Hagiographical Dossier of Eleutherius of Illyricum: an Introduction 24 2.3.1. The Byzantine Tradition and Constantinople 24 2.3.2. Hierapolis 26 2.4. “Wolf of Arabia” and Arabian Connexions of Eleutherius 29 2.5. Hierapolis and Arabia in a Peculiar Tradition on Apostle Philippe 30 2.6. The Legends on Conversion of Nağrān: an Introduction 32 2.6.1. A Legend with an East Syrian Background 33 2.6.2. Two Legends with a West Syrian Background and Their Common Source 34 2.7. The *Fymywn Legend, Eleutherius’ Dossier, and the Legend on John and Friday 36 2.8. Eleutherius and the Gädlä Azqir 37 2.9. The Personal Names in Eleutherius’ Dossier 39 2.9.1. Eleutherius’ Companion 40 2.9.2. Eleutherius’ Mother 41 2.9.3. Eleutherius 41 Part Three: Eleutherius and Friday 42 3.1. Friday Veneration in Bostra: St Parasceve and Baḥīrā 42 3.1.1. St Parasceve’s Dossier: Introduction 42 3.1.2. St Parasceve’s Dossier: Arabic Connexions 44 3.1.3. Bostra, the Teaching of Baḥīrā, and the Lost Revelation on Friday 45 3.1.4. Sitz im Leben of the Parasceve Legend 46 Note 2: The Baḥīrā legend, Its Sources, and the Hagiographical Substrate 47 3.2. The Anti-Jewish Polemics in Parasceve’s Dossier and in Eleutherius 48 3.3. Concluding Remarks on the Cult of Eleutherius 48 3.3.1. Commemoration Dates of Eleutherius 48
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9158 - May 18, 2020, 09:19 PM

    Yeez - the early manuscripts aren’t on paper.

    zeca says that for these words...
    ......................(Clicky for piccy!)

    that is what PhDniX.  says on that picture ..

    So assuming  that hadith is the................ " earliest dated Arabic paper manuscript (252 AH/866 CE), a copy of Abū ʿUbayd's (d. 224)"........

    then then...   dear Ph_DniX .... Cheesy  .,   ... https://phoenixblog.typepad.com/blog/  .............what about those Quran Manuscripts??   Are they PORK CHOPS?? were they not have earlier than that date  (252 AH/866 CE) Arabic paper manuscripts??

    you are right dear zeca., my point was slightly different...

    What is important for Muslims? Quran or Hadith?..
    was  Abū ʿUbayd born in Islam Muslim or a converted Muslim? 
    why did he choose to write that hadith on paper instead doing Quran verses/chapters or  whole book the Quran on paper ??
    After all writing paper is far more easier than writing on those dried animal skins.. or on that Plant material..
    or was Abū ʿUbayd  more familiar with Hadith rather than  Quran?

    anyways zeca forget those questions but if you know the answer for this question .

    When was the first time that whole Quran .. the book was published on paper?? .....let me know .,   

    well on the dates of earliest  Quran Manuscripts Altara says this https://www.councilofexmuslims.com/index.php?topic=27568.msg878085#msg878085  .. and mundi considers whole Quran.... everything every word of it is done by the year 650...660...

    with best wishes
    yeezevee

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9159 - May 18, 2020, 09:44 PM

    This mentions quran manuscripts on paper surviving from the tenth century: https://www.jstor.org/stable/1523287?seq=1
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9160 - May 19, 2020, 04:22 PM

    This mentions quran manuscripts on paper surviving from the tenth century:

    The Introduction of Paper to the Islamic Lands and the Development of the Illustrated Manuscript  Jonathan M. Bloom .,  in Muqarnas  Vol. 17 (2000), pp. 17-23 

    silent points from that pub  .. thank you zeca...

    Quote
    1).  ...... The oldest surviving book on "Arab" or "Islamic. paper is gen-erally thought to be a Greek manuscript of the teach-ings of the Church fathers (Vat. Gr. 2200), believed to have been copied in Damascus ca. 800. Apart from a manuscript in the Alexandria public library recently discovered by the Israeli scholar Malachi Beit-Arie,7..............

    2). ........ the oldest surviving book on paper in Arabic (in Europe) is a work in Leiden on unusual terms in the prophetic traditions, which is dated Dhu'l-Qa.da 252  (November—December 867). It bears no indication of where it was copied .8 Over the course of the ninth and tenth centuries the use of paper became increasingly common as the early Islamic traditions of oral culture were trans-formed into, although not entirely replaced by, a text-based culture of boo..• As in many cases, the lead seems to have been taken in Iraq and Iran, where paper had been known longest and used in various contexts and by bureaucrats, who were the fitrst to use pap, in large quantities, although few, if any, examples of paper documents have survived from the early period..

    3). .......Several dated manuscripts of the Quran copied on paper, presumably in Iran and Iraq, survive from the tenth century, the most famous of which is, of course, that copied by the noted calligrapher Ibn al-Bawwab at Baghdad exactly one thou-sand years ago..

    4). ......... In Egypt, over the course of the tenth century, the manufacture of paper completely supplanted the 4,000-year-old papyrus industry, and archaeology confirms what the medieval geographers , that papyrus was no longer used in Egypt.. George Scanlon's excavations at Fustat showed an overwhelming preponderance of paper over papyrus from the eleventh-century levels.

    5)....... Only in North Africa and Spain, which was known for its production of leather and hides, did parchment remain the preferred material for copying manuscripts, particularly the Koran, but by the year 1000 even in this region pa-per was being made in significant quantities.

    6)..... Several Christian manuscripts in the library of the monastery of Burgos, for example, were partly copied on paper, presumably of Muslim manufacture, as early as the tenth century................

     

    well every day new questions arise on origins of present Islam and Origins of Quran...... .. I wonder what we have now is MONGOL ISLAM...HADITH ISLAM  not ISLAM OF QURAN...


    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9161 - May 20, 2020, 10:31 AM

    Thread: https://mobile.twitter.com/GabrielSaidR/status/1261640134430244864
    Quote
    I would say the use of the Nabataean script strongly suggests a (N)W Arabian or S. Levantine locus. Coupled w the linguistic profile, NW Arabia seems most likely. I would emphasize that Yathrib should be considered culturally NW Arabia, perhaps the southern periphery of Nabataea

  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9162 - May 20, 2020, 12:43 PM

    Who says that? Reynolds?
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9163 - May 20, 2020, 02:09 PM

    This mentions quran manuscripts on paper surviving from the tenth century: https://www.jstor.org/stable/1523287?seq=1

    The Introduction of Paper to the Islamic Lands and the Development of the Illustrated Manuscript  Jonathan M. Bloom .,  in Muqarnas  Vol. 17 (2000), pp. 17-23 

     

    dr. Jonathan M. Bloom is an interesting guy... below is his interview on the history of the minarets in Islam

    Quote
    An Ancient Game of Architectural "Tit for Tat"

    Jonathan M. Bloom, who lectures in the history of Islamic art and architecture at the Boston College of Arts and Sciences, considers the Swiss decision to prohibit the construction of minarets to be a slap in the face of the Muslim community in Switzerland. Eren Güvercin asked him about the origin and history of the minaret..

    Q: Minarets have become a distinctive symbol of Islam. But what is the origin of the minaret? Where did it come from?

    Jonathan M. Bloom: The earliest (i.e. seventh-century) mosques did not have minarets. However, some – but not all – mosques had them by the ninth century, so they appear to have been "invented" in the late eighth or early ninth century. There have been many theories about the origins of the minaret – that they came from church towers, from watch towers, from lighthouses, from signal towers, from victory columns, etc. – but none of them is true. My research has shown that the earliest minarets had nothing to do with the call to prayer and so they were probably designed to be exactly what they are today, a symbol of the presence of a mosque and therefore a symbol of Islam. Only later did these towers acquire the secondary meaning of being the place from which the call to prayer is given.

    Q: So is the minaret a political symbol or a form of Islamic architecture?

    well read answer to that question and more at the link.. but let me read this   
    Quote
    Revolution by the Ream A History of Paper Written by Jonathan M. Bloom

    The new availability of paper in the ninth century spurred an extraordinary burst of literary creativity in virtually all subjects, from theology to the natural sciences and belles-lettres. Religious scholars collected and codified the traditions (hadith) of the Prophet, which had been preserved orally following his death in 632, and committed them to ink and paper. New types of literature, such as cookbooks and the tales we know as The Thousand and One Nights, were copied on paper for sale to interested readers. Although earlier caliphs had maintained libraries, it was Harun's son and successor al-Ma'mun (813-833) who enlarged the caliphal library, which came to be known as the bayt al-hikmah, or "house of knowledge." (See Aramco World,May/June 1982, March/April 1987.) Scholars and copyists translated Greek texts, written on parchment and papyrus, into Arabic, transcribing them onto sheets of paper which were then bound into books.


    that article has interesting ideas on early Islamic literature ...

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9164 - May 20, 2020, 07:24 PM

    Who says that? Reynolds?

    Al-Jallad. There’s a bit of discussion between him and Van Putten. Twitter have now made it harder to link to threads but you can find it if you click on Reynolds’ second tweet.
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9165 - May 20, 2020, 10:38 PM

    Thanks got it.
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9166 - May 22, 2020, 04:55 PM

    Islam’s Origins: Myth and Material Evidence  ..Apr 3, 2019  ..Prof.  Fred Donner


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=koVaxbWBlr4


    Muhammad Iqbal's Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam  by Dr Sabrina Lei

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MO09wdsa1NE


    Dr.   Sabrina Lei


    What Proof Do Muslims Have that Muhammad is the Final Prophet? | Dr. Shabir Ally

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0dCacWTV6-k

    and we know who my good friend Dr. Shabir Ally is .. I respect that guy and his views.. Off course a faith head is a faith head .. thy use faith NOT HEAD

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9167 - May 22, 2020, 07:24 PM

    Donner takes for granted that the narrative (taken from squellettic narrative allusions of the Quran) is historical. He has, unfortunately, none elements to validate this apart the Muslim narrative to which he is obliged to believe to have this lecture. Donner is a Great Believer.
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9168 - May 22, 2020, 11:28 PM

    IQSA Zoom Seminar #7 Robert Hoyland - 'Arabi and A'jami in the Qur'an
    https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=xfa92Xw5_ME
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9169 - May 22, 2020, 11:41 PM

    Hoyland has a bad mic and his nasal voice does not fit...
    Sceptics are considered "conspiracy theorists". Interesting. Was Crone (his supervisor) a "conspiracy theorist"?
    Does this phrase has a place in a scientific lecture?
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9170 - May 22, 2020, 11:47 PM

    Probably all part of the hazards of using zoom.

    Edit: the bad sound that is.
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9171 - May 22, 2020, 11:53 PM

    Donner takes for granted that the narrative (taken from squellettic narrative allusions of the Quran) is historical. He has, unfortunately, none elements to validate this apart the Muslim narrative to which he is obliged to believe to have this lecture. Donner is a Great Believer.

    Off course  he is obliged to believe in Islamic narrative ., coming out of Islamic narrative of MUSLIM FAITH HEADS  and defending the faith of  Islam outside of that box needs a ground breaking change in politics and religions of middle east ., that is not an easy task for a faculty member whose bread and butter depends upon  following the existing rules of faiths..

    well send this book pdf file and ask him to write against it.  That book is published in 2008 ? 2009??  and  he published  his book in 2010...

    I hope Fred Donner read that book... I wonder did he air his opinion on that book??

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9172 - May 22, 2020, 11:57 PM

    ...............Interesting. Was Crone (his supervisor) a "conspiracy theorist"? .........

    common stop hitting her....  she did her best with in her limits .. It is not easy for a woman who come from some European countries and make a name in AMRICA  as a faculty member specially on the subjects that are related to faiths and History of Faiths,,,  ..  NOT JUST her  Job but her life would have been in line specially in her times ..  1980s to her  July 2015 ., BUT WE CAN BLAME HER STUDENTS such as Hoyland

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9173 - May 23, 2020, 12:07 AM

    I think you do not (still) understand what  I say Yeez. Listen to Hoyland and reread me.
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9174 - May 23, 2020, 12:12 AM

    I think you do not (still) understand what Yeez. Listen to Hoyland and reread me.


    that is true dear Altara I DID NOT  LISTEN TO HIM IN THAT TUBE  ..  and i will.,    but if he said or considers that " dr.  Crone was a "conspiracy theorist"?"...

    then I would consider him as A..  playing to the crowd..

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9175 - May 23, 2020, 12:27 AM

    Interesting map in 16'. To illustrate what he says about the Muhammad Arabic Quran from the Hijaz, he shows places outside the peninsula. But what has it got to do with Mecca?
    Why he cannot show the Mecca/Medina places?
    The answer is : because there's nothing.
    When you speak of London, you show Brussels? Paris?
    Posing the question is to answer it.
    "Certainly Jewish communities in the Hijaz"
    Where?
    There's nothing.
    He is very hesitant. The more I read and see Hoyland, the more I feel that there is problematic things with this guy. Strange sensation.
    One speaks Syriac/Aramaic in Mecca? Yathrib?
    Why not. Where are the inscriptions?
    Nowhere. There's  (unfortunately ...) nothing.

    Interesting translation of 26:198-199. (7'30) Moreover the first intervention is about it.
    Hoyland translation (?) is that:
    1/the "he" in 199 is Muhammad who had recited in a'jami/Aramaic language. But to whom? The one in 198 or to the people (them) ?
    2/Muhammad  speaks Aramaic? (i.e in the a'jami language) as a'jami is Aramaic as Hoyland says it at the end of the lecture.
    Maybe I miss something here but...



     
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9176 - May 23, 2020, 08:48 AM

    Ahmad al-Jallad - The Linguistic Landscape of pre-Islamic Arabia -- Context for the Qur’an

    https://www.academia.edu/43141064/Al-Jallad._2020._The_Linguistic_Landscape_of_pre-Islamic_Arabia_--_Context_for_the_Qur_an?
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9177 - May 23, 2020, 01:28 PM

    It seems to me impossible that: If "The Nabataean inscriptions not only illustrate the gradual emergence of the Arabic script, but they also bear witness to centuries of Arabic-Aramaic language contact and bilingualism." there was no influence of the Syriac script especially when you see what was Nabatean script and Syriac script in the 2nd c.  and what is the 568 Harran inscription which is the proto Quranic one. Im-po-ssible. Telling this (no relation) is taken people for fools. Jallad, Nehmé, MVP and Macdonald can say whatever they want...
    Robin is right about this (DeepL translation) :
     "For my part, I do not believe that the origin of the Arabic alphabet can be explained. only by the study of letters, examined alone or in composition. It social factors must also be taken into consideration and the environment must be sought. who developed this alphabet and the reasons behind it. However, it is not impossible to to make a hypothesis about this environment of origin. It is indeed observed that the initiatives to win the desert Arabs in Syria and Arabia to Christianity come from almost all from a small region of northern Syria, namely the province of  of Euphratesia whose metropolitan seat is in Mabboug (thus in Syriac, Hierapolis in Greek, Manbiǧ in Arabic) and to a lesser extent the provinces neighboring Osrhoene (metropolitan seat Edessa) and Syria First (metropolitan seat Antioch), and that they are particularly numerous during the three first decades of the sixth century"
    Christian Julien Robin, “La réforme de l’écriture arabe à l’époque du califat médinois”, in Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph, 59, 2006, pp. 319-364, p.327.
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9178 - May 23, 2020, 01:46 PM

    Well I can not answer Altara Questions on Islam for Hoyland hypothesis  ..that only Hoyland can do... but dear Altara .. I bumped in to this lecture  tube of another "land" The Tom Holland  

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I5slk97ss2Q

    what is your opinion on that? because he starts his talk with Christopher Hitchens words .. THAT HE TAKES THEM OUT OF THE CONTEXT that Hitchens used to answer a Question of a believing Muslim guy ..  the work of this land is as popular as the Hoyland

    Damn problem is in the "LAND".. even today people want to occupy lands of others .. Cheesy Cheesy

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Qur'anic studies today
     Reply #9179 - May 23, 2020, 01:51 PM

    well there are so many different points here..
    Interesting map in 16'. To illustrate what he says about the Muhammad Arabic Quran from the Hijaz, he shows places outside the peninsula. But what has it got to do with Mecca?
    Why he cannot show the Mecca/Medina places?
    The answer is : because there's nothing.
    When you speak of London, you show Brussels? Paris?
    Quote
    Posing the question is to answer it.
    "Certainly Jewish communities in the Hijaz"
    Where?
    There's nothing.

    He is very hesitant. The more I read and see Hoyland, the more I feel that there is problematic things with this guy. Strange sensation.
    One speaks Syriac/Aramaic in Mecca? Yathrib?
    Why not. Where are the inscriptions?
    Nowhere. There's  (unfortunately ...) nothing.

    Interesting translation of 26:198-199. (7'30) Moreover the first intervention is about it.
    Hoyland translation (?) is that:
    1/the "he" in 199 is Muhammad who had recited in a'jami/Aramaic language. But to whom? The one in 198 or to the people (them) ?
    2/Muhammad  speaks Aramaic? (i.e in the a'jami language) as a'jami is Aramaic as Hoyland says it at the end of the lecture.
    Maybe I miss something here but...
     

      but I am interested in your words that are in quotes....

    Quote
    Posing the question is to answer it.
    "Certainly Jewish communities in the Hijaz"
    Where?
    There's nothing.


    I didn't get that.,   you mean to say "THERE WERE NO JEWISH/CHRISTIAN FOLKS IN THE "HIJAZ" region of that time??

    https://www.google.com/maps/search/hijaz+mountains/@25.4761712,31.7503479,1639382m/data=!3m1!1e3

    please click the link to see the region

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
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