It might also be interesting to put a date on the construction of qanats around Mecca.
Dale Lightfoot - The Origin and Diffusion of Qanats in Arabia: New Evidence from the Northern and Southern Peninsulahttps://www.academia.edu/10767576/The_Origin_and_Diffusion_of_Qanats_in_Arabia_New_Evidence_from_the_Northern_and_Southern_Peninsula
There’s this about Zubaidah having a water supply constructed. I’ve no idea about the accuracy of the account.https://www.thedailystar.net/lifestyle/musings/news/queen-sized-heart-1709986
Nicknamed Zubaidah, the princess married the fabled Caliph Harun-ur-Rashid, and is said to have made the pilgrimage to Makkah with her husband more than once, completing the long arduous journey by foot, due their piety.
During one such journey, in an exceptionally dry year, the Queen noticed the untold suffering of pilgrims and residents of Makkah for the shortage of water in the dry and arid valley, so much so that even the legendary Zamzam could not meet the demand. Once back home to her palace, she decided to take matters into her own hand. Her first order of business was to deepen the Zamzam well, immediately alleviating some of the suffering of the people. But she was also a planner, and farsighted. Knowing that just the well should not be depended on, she set her engineers the task of finding ways to bring water to Makkah. The valleys nearby the city had some wells, but the only suitable source of water for such an initiative was found some 35 kms away, in the valley of Hunayn, and another one in nearby Arafat. Zubaidah is said to have bought the entire valley, and commissioned her team of architects and engineers to build canals to bring this water, and that from another nearby well, to Makkah. Given the arid nature of the climate, and the hot, tough and rocky terrain, the plan was adapted, and changed to two aqueducts, as preserving a steady supply of surface water would be nearly impossible in the heat. Access wells were built every 50 metres along the entire 38km canal, to allow people free access to the water, and the maintenance of the structure itself. All other canals and any available water sources encountered nearby were used to boost the aqueduct's water supply. It was a truly amazing feat of engineering, maintaining its grade and direction to allow smooth and continuous flow of clean water through a channel that was sometimes over hills, through valleys, and sometimes underground, as dictated by the terrain. The Ayn-e-Zubaidah or Nehr-e-Zubaidah, as the canal is called today, is said to have cost nearly 1.7 million dinars, each dinar being equal to ten grams of gold. Queen Zubaidah paid the entirety of this cost out of her own coffers, virtue of being a queen consort, as well as a princess in her own right. The canal was completed in 801 A.D. and served the pilgrims and residents of Makkah until the early years of the 20th century.
Edit: more here: http://islamicmonitor.blogspot.com/2012/05/ain-zubaida-symbol-of-magnificent.html
Speaking about the engineering works of the Ain Zubaida, Professor Abu Rizaiza mentioned, The system consists of canals (Qanats), manholes, retaining walls, culvert, dams, bridges, pools, ground (and elevated) water storage tanks and distribution outlets embellished with beautifully shaped stone taps.
One question would be whether qanats in the area pre-dated this project.