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Theme Changer

 Topic: Chronological History of Islam

 (Read 21057 times)
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  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #30 - September 06, 2014, 01:56 PM

    Hmm... Lost Islamic History .. OK..


    Quote
    19th Century (1800-1899) C.E.

    1803:Shah Abdul Aziz ibn Saud assassinated by a Shia fanatic. Shah Shuja proclaimed as King of Afghanistan.

    1805:Ibn Saud captured Madinah defeating the Turk garrison.

    1804:Othman Dan Fodio established Islamic State of Sokoto in Central Sudan.

    1805:Faraizi movement launched in Bengal. Muhammad Ali appointed Pasha of Egypt by the Turks.

    1806:Khanate of Khiva came into limelight under the rule of Muhammad Rahim Khan.

    1807:Darqawi sect revolted against Turkish domination. Tunisia repudiated suzerainty of Algeria.

    1811:Birth of Ali Muhammad Bab founder of Bab movement.

    1811:British occupied Indonesia.

    1812:Madina fell to Egyptians.

    1813:Makkah and Taif captured by Egyptian forces and Saudis expelled from Hijaz.

    1814:Iran executed treaty of alliance with the British known as Definitive Treaty.

    1814:Death of Ibn Saud II.

    1814:King Othman of Tunisia assassinated by his cousin Mahmud.

    1816:British withdrew from Indonesia restoring it to the Dutch.

    1822:Death of Maulay Ismail in Morocco.

    1827:Malaya became a preserve of the British according to Anglo- Netherland treaty in 1824.

    1828:Russia declared war against Turkey.

    1829:Treaty of Adrianople.

    1830:French forces landed near Algiers and occupied Algeria ending 313 years rule of Turks.

    1831:Syed Ahmad Barelvi and Shah Ismail leaders of Jihad movement in India fell fighting the Sikhs in Balakot.

    1832:Turks defeated in the battle of Konia by Egyptian forces.

    1832:Sayyid Said, King of Oman, shifted his capital to Zanzibar.

    1834:Abdul Qadir recognised as ruler of the area under his control by the French.

    1839:Defeat of Turkey by the Egyptians in the battle of Nisibin.

    1840:Quadruple Alliance by the European powers to force Egypt to relinquish Syria.

    1840:British frees occupied Aden.

    1841:State of Adamawa established by Adams adjacent to Nigeria.

    1842:Amir Abdul Qadir, ousted from Algeria by the French. crossed over to Morocco.

    1842:Shah Shuja assassinated ending the Durrani rule in Afghanistan.

    1847:Amir Abdul Qadir surrendred to France under the condition of safe conduct to a Muslim country of his choice but France violated its pledge and sent him as a captive to France.

    1849:Death of Muhammad Ali pasha.

    1850:Ali Muhammad Bab arrested and executed by Iranian government. Qurratul Ain Tabira, a renowned poetess and staunch advocate of Babism also shot dead.

    1852:Release of Amir Abdul Qadir by Napolean III. He settled in Turkey.

    1855:Khiva annexed by Russia.

    1857:British captured Delhi and eliminated Mughal rule in India after 332 years. Last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was exiled to Rangoon in Burma. This was also the end of 1000 years of Muslim rule over India.

    1859:Imam Shamil laid down arms before Russian forces and the Islamic State of Daghestan became a Russian province.

    1860:Maulay Muhammad defeated by Spain.

    1861:Death of Sultan Abdul-Majid of Turkey.

    1862:Faraizi movement fizzled out after the death of Dadu Miyan..

    1865:Khoqand State liquidated by Russia.

    1869:Jamaluddin Afghani exiled from Afghanistan. He proceeded to Egypt.

    1871:Tunisia recognised suzerainty of Turkey through a Firman.

    1876:Britain purchased shares of Khediv Ismail in the Suez canal and got involved in Egyptian affairs.

    1878:Turkey handed over Cyprus to Britain.

    1878:Adrianople fell to Russia.

    1879:Jamaluddin Afghani exiled from Egypt.

    1879:Treaty of Berlin. Turkey lost 4/5 th of its territory in Europe.

    1881:France invaded Tunisia and the Bey acknowledged supremacy of France as a result of the treaty of Bardo.

    1881:Muhammad Ahmad declared himself Mahdi in northern Sudan.

    1882:Egypt came under British military occupation.

    1883:Death of Amir Abdul Qadir in Damascus.

    1885:Muhammad Ahmad declared free Government of Sudan under his rule.

    1885:Death of Mahdi Sudani five months after the occupation of Khartum.

    1890:End of Banbara State.

    1895:Afghanistan got Wakhan corridor by an understanding with Russia and British India making Afghan border touch China.

    1895:Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian claimed prophethood.

    1897:State of Bagirimi occupied by the French,

    1899:Fall of Mahdi State occupied by the British and the Egyptians jointly.



    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #31 - April 11, 2015, 02:53 PM

    ISLAMIC RULINGS ON WARFARE by  Youssef H. Aboul-Enein  Sherifa Zuhur

    Quote
    Youssef Aboulenein Sherifa Zuhur  is a Navy Medical Service Corps lieutenant commander and designated Middle East Foreign Area Officer. He is
    currently Country Director for North Africa and Egypt and special
    advisor on Islamic militancy at the Offi ce of the Secretary of Defense
    for International Security Affairs. He has published articles on Islamic
    militancy, Arab affairs, and Middle East military tactics for Military
    Review, the Marine Corps Gazette, and the Foreign Area Offi cer Journal.
    Lieutenant Commander Aboul-Enein is author of Ayman Al-Zawahiri:
    The Ideologue of Modern Islamic Militancy, published through the U.S. Air
    Force Counter Proliferation Center in March 2004.    

      
    ha! interesting

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #32 - April 11, 2015, 04:40 PM

    Islam in 20th Century.

    Quote
    1901:   Ibn Saud (Abd al-Aziz) captures Riyad.
    1901:   French forces occupy Morocco.
    1904:   Morocco becomes a French protectorate under the Conference of Algeciras.
    1904:   The Presian constitution is promoted.
    1905:   The beginning of the Salafiyyah movement in Paris with it's main sphere of influence in Egypt.
    1907:   The beginning of the Young Turks movement in Turkey.
    1912:   The beginning of the Muhammadiyyah reform movement in Indonesia.
    1914:   Under Ottoman rule, secret Arab nationalist societies are formed.
    1914:   World War I.
    1916:   Arab revolt against Ottoman (Turkish) rule. Lawrence of Arabia leads attacks on the Hijaz Railway.
    1918:   Armistice signed with Ottomans on October 30.
    1918:   World War I ends on November 11.
    1918:   Syria and Damascus become a French protectorate.
    1921:   Abd Allah bin Husayn in made King of Transjordan. His father was the Sharif of Mecca.
    1921:   Faysal bin Husayn is made King of Iraq. His father was the Sharif of Mecca.
    1921:   Abd al-Karim leads a revolt against colonial rule in Moroccan Rif, and declares the "Republic of the Rif".
    1922:   Mustafa Kemal abolishes the Turkish Sultanate.
    1924:   The Turkish Caliphate is abolished.
    1924:   King Abd al-Aziz conquers Mecca and Medina, which leads to the unification of the Kingdoms of Najd and Hijaz.
    1925:   Reza Khan seizes the government in Persia and establishes the Pahlavi dynasty.
    1926:   Abd al-Aziz (Ibn Saud) assumes title of King of Najd and Hijaz.
    1927:   Death of Zaghlul, an Egyptian nationalist leader.
    1928:   Turkey is declared a secular state.
    1928:   Hasan al-Banna founds the Muslim Brotherhood.
    1932:   Iraq granted independence by League of Nations.
    1934:   War between King Abd al-Aziz and Imam Yahya of the Yemen.
    1934:   Peace treaty of Ta'if.
    1934:   Asir becomes part of Saudi Arabia.
    1935:   Iran becomes the official name of Persia.
    1936:   Increased Jewish immigration provokes widespread Arab-Jewish fighting in Palestine.
    1939:   World War II.
    1941:   British and Russian forces invade Iran and Reza Shah is forced to abdicate in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Shah in Iran.
    1943:   Beginning of Zionist terrorist campaign in Palestine.
    1945:   End of World War II.
    1946:   Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria are granted independence from Britain and France.
    1947:   Creation of Pakistan from Muslim Majority area in India.
    1948:   Creation of state of Israel. Arab armies suffer defeat in war with Israel.
    1949:   Hasan al-Banna, leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, is assassinated.
    1951:   Libya becomes independent.
    1952:   King Faruq of Egypt forced to abdicate.
    1953:   General Zahedi leads coup against Musaddeq, Shah returns to power.
    1953:   Death of King Abd al-Aziz (Ibn Saud) of Saudi Arabia.
    1953:   The foundation stone is laid to enlarge the Prophet's mosque in Medina.
    1956:   Morocco becomes independent.
    1956:   Tunisia becomes independent.
    1957:   The Bey of Tunisia is deposed, and Bourguiba becomes becomes president.
    1957:   Enlargement of the Haram in Mecca begins.
    1962:   Algeria becomes independent.
    1962:   Death of Zaydi Imam of Yemen (Ahmad). Crown Prince Bahr succeds him and takes the title Imam Mansur Bi-Llah Muhammad.
    1965:   Malcom X is assassinated.
    1968:   The enlargement of the Haram in Mecca is completed.
    1969:   King Idris of Libya is ousted by a coup led by Colonel Qadhdhafi.
    1973:   King Zahir Shah of Afghanistan is overthrown.
    1975:   Death of Elijah Mohammad, leader of Nation of Islam among African Americans in North America.
    1975:   Wallace Warith Deen Mohammad assumes leadership of Nation of Islam and shifts movement toward Islamic Orthodoxy renaming it American Muslim Mission.
    1978:   Imam Musa Sadr is apparently assassinated after he disappears on a trip to Libya. He was the religious leader of the Lebanese Twelve-Imam Shi'ites. He promoted the resurgence of Shi'ites in Lebanon and set the foundation of Amal.
    1979:   The Shah leaves Iran on January 15, thus bringing the Pahlavi dynasty to an end.
    1979:   On 1 Muharram AH 1400/21 November, the first day of the 15th Islamic century, fanatics led by students of the Theological University of Medina attempt to promote one of their group as Mahdi and thus fulfill a certain prophetic Hadith:
    Quote
    "A man of the people of Medina will go forth, fleeing to Mecca, and certain of the people of Mecca will come to him and will lead him forth against his will and swear fealty to him between the rukn (Black Stone corner of the Kabah) and the Maqam Ibrahim."

    They hold the Haram of Mecca against the army for two weeks. Sixty-three of the 300 fanatics are captured alive, the mosque is recovered, and the conspirators are all put to death.
    1980:   Beginning of the Iran-Iraq war.
    1989:   Iran-Iraq comes to an end with much loss of life.
    1990:   Military annexation of Kuwait by Iraq, under Ba'athist leader Saddam Hussain, is reversed in 1991 by a coalition of United States-led forces.

    Well who knows who is fanatic and who is not.....  

    I would say  if some Government captures 300 folks and beheads all of them irrespective of their political ideology/problems with the state .. Then I say that Govt is more fanatic than these fanatics..

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #33 - April 13, 2015, 01:42 PM

    Byzantine Empire and Early Islam.....

    Quote
    The Byzantine Empire, is an Eastern division of Roman Empire  and was the predominantly Greek-speaking eastern half  in continuation and remainder of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages

    . Its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), originally founded as Byzantium. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.



    Solidus with the image of Justinian the Great(r. 527–565) (see Byzantine insignia) of Byzantine Empire



    Location of Byzantine Empire in 555 AD..


    The Byzantine Empire in 650 - by this year it had lost all of its southern provinces except the Exarchate of Africa


    Byzantine Empire in orange, in the year 1180, at the end of the Komnenian period

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #34 - July 15, 2015, 11:29 AM

    Stories from different sides

    One Side of the Coin...

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UHhbSvOcz4g

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gXTZDBNVmIo

    The other side of the coin...
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7y2LRcf4kc

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K-fcvIf3LZs

    I am pretty certain that BOTH STORIES are wrong with reference to Prophet of Islam... because there was None.. it is all cock and bull stories in the name of "Muhammad" ,    And that also goes to Christ.. and even Moses... Same thing goes to all Pagan religious stories across the globe..   The only historical stories that appears to have some reality are that of Buddha .. and That of Alexander .. neither guys have anything to do with religions ....

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #35 - July 15, 2015, 03:17 PM

    Quote
    The Byzantine Empire, is an Eastern division of Roman Empire


    No!  It moved from Rome to Constantinople.  The Western bit then fell apart.  "Division" is a complete misunderstanding!

    When you are a Bear of Very Little Brain, and you Think of Things, you find sometimes that a Thing which seemed very Thingish inside you is quite different when it gets out into the open and has other people looking at it.


    A.A. Milne,

    "We cannot slaughter each other out of the human impasse"
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #36 - July 15, 2015, 05:31 PM

    Moi, it really depends on what concepts and systems you use to legitimize a state. Before the Fall there was a division of the Empire due to Theodosiu's will which divided the Empire in two with different emperors. This is a valid division of inheritance as per the quasi-elective system Rome used for centuries. There was no unified head of state after his death. His family line was removed from power in 10 years breaking any dynastic unity. Every branch of government functioned within it's own domain with no power in the other sphere. These become two separate states which shared a heritage no more than if land was divided between you and a sibling. 

    The East survived, the West did not. Byzantium is a modern term we use to identify what in reality is a Greeco-Roman Empire. It still saw itself as the Roman Empire and at time treated as such.
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #37 - December 06, 2015, 11:57 AM

    These are good pictures to have here...


    An 1821 map of the world, where "Christians, Mahometans, and Pagans" correspond to levels of civilization (The map makes no distinction between Buddhism and Hinduism).


    An 1883 map of the world divided into colors representing "Christians, Buddhists, Hindus, Mohammedans and Pagans".


    Map showing the distribution of world religions by country/state, and by smaller administrative regions for the largest countries (China, India, Russia, United States), according to the most recent data available ..

    Christianity in Magenta
      Islam in Cyan
      Buddhism, Chinese religions, Hinduism, indigenous religions yellow




    History of religious categories  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/04/06/countries-religious-diversity_n_5093551.html


    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #38 - February 04, 2016, 12:39 PM

    Agnostic Athiest Explaining Religion & History of Islam

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E6g4hOXDFm0

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #39 - February 19, 2016, 11:23 PM

    The end of empires

    Quote
    WHEN Muslim armies boiled out of the Arabian desert and won a string of stunning victories in the seventh century, believers were convinced that they owed this success to divine intervention.
    Quote
    But apart from their speed, tactics and zeal, the Muslim armies benefited from other factors as well. In his brilliant book In the Shadow of the Sword, Tom Holland recounts the fall of the Persian and Roman empires and the rise of Islam, and describes this convergence of events as the end of the ancient world.

    In 541, around a century before the great Muslim conquests, a deadly plague swept across much of Rome’s eastern empire centred on Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) and Iranshahr, or the Persian Empire. In those days, Egypt was Rome’s granary, and grain ships from Alexandria fed millions.


    How to explain these multiple crises.

    But that year, these ships brought more than grain: in the holds were rats that bore plague-carrying fleas. This deadly pestilence soon began ravaging cities, towns and villages across the empire. From Constantinople, the epidemic spread swiftly to Europe, Mesopotamia and Persia. Although few records were kept, it is estimated that a third of the population of the lands visited by the plague died in a particularly horrible way.

    Even after the pestilence had subsided, it continued to cast a long shadow: the price of labour rose, tax collection fell sharply, and it became difficult to find recruits for the Roman legions. Entire regions had been denuded of their populations, and in once-prosperous villages, wolves howled in the wilderness.

    But this was not the only crisis Rome faced: possible environmental changes in the steppes of Central Asia caused the Huns to seek better land. As they moved into Eastern Europe, they pushed other tribes into the western provinces of the Roman Empire, putting great pressure on the stretched legions. How to explain these multiple crises? Most people believed that they were due to God’s anger.

    Quote
    In 600 AD, the pestilence returned to Jerusalem and its surrounding areas, once again decimating the population. But the tribes of Arabia had remained insulated from the ravages of the plague, with the desert serving as a buffer zone. One contemporary Roman described the situation thus:

    “[While] once countless military units had dwindled in number, the plague, that ally of war, had not so much as touched the rancorous tribes.”

    As a result of falling tax revenues and manpower, the defences along the Arabian desert were virtually abandoned, with the Romans focusing on their traditional foe, the Persian Empire. In 606 AD, the Persians besieged the Roman fort city of Dara, and after taking it three years later, advanced on Anatolia and Jerusalem. By 615, all of Syria and Palestine were in Persian hands.

    Heraclius, the Roman emperor, decided on a risky counterstroke in which he led a task force north across the Armenian mountains into Persia. Here, after a series of victories, he entered into a secret agreement with one of Khusrow’s generals who killed the Persian emperor, and signed a peace agreement with the Romans, thus ending the great war in 628.

    This titanic struggle had greatly drained both mighty empires, a factor that contributed significantly to the Arab victory over a Roman task force near Gaza in 634 AD. Settlements, unprotected by Roman legions and decimated by the plague, surrendered in quick succession. Traditionally, Rome had dealt with Arab raiders by paying them off, but this time, it was different.

    Quote
    A third factor contributing to the defeat of the Roman armies was the virtual absence of the Ghassanids from the field. This was a powerful Arab Christian tribe that had prospered over the centuries, acting as an auxiliary force for Rome. In return for patrolling the borders of the desert, Ghassanid rulers were given titles and gold.

    The tribe followed an early strain of Christianity known as Monophysitism, and this brought them into conflict with the orthodox Byzantium church. Ultimately, they were defeated by the armies of Islam, and many moved into the Levant. Once a powerful force in the region, few remember their name now.

    However, to one keen student of Islamic history, the lesson from the fate of the Ghassanids was clear: Osama bin Laden, in a recording sent to Al Jazeera, declared that if Muslims were to work for the benefit of foreign patrons, “We would also be like our forefathers, the Al Ghassaniah. The concerns of their elders was to be appointed officers for the Byzantines, and to be named kings in order to safeguard the interests of the Byzantines by killing their brothers of the peninsula’s Arabs. Such is the case of the new Al Ghassaniah; namely, Arab rulers.”

    Specifically, Bin Laden was accusing the Saudi ruling family of being toadies of the Americans, and serving their interests at the cost of their own people. Now, as the Americans gradually withdraw from the Middle East, will the House of Saud fade into history, much as the Ghassanids have done?


    "Bin Laden was accusing the Saudi ruling family of being toadies of the Americans, and serving their interests at the cost of their own people".....

    well that is what Irfan Husain  writes in today's dawn and I have to agree with him  on that  SAUDS OF SAND LAND/AMRIKEE and  Bin Laden collaboration

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #40 - September 19, 2016, 06:58 PM

    Hi Yeez,
    I´m trying to make a list of events of which we have historical sources. And my first event is

    the battle of Mouta, 629 AD

    Apparently this battle was won by the Byzantines, and might be referenced to in Quran Romains (30,2-5). But Gallez suggests that the reading of these verses is wrong (no vowels in rasm...). The verses just don´t make sense in the classical reading.

    The reading should be:
    The romans won (g°alabat) in the nearest land. They will be defeated (sayag°labûna) in a few years. Then the believers will rejoice.

    (In French:“Les Romains ont vaincu (g°alabat) au plus proche de la Terre. Eux, après leur victoire (g°alibi-him), seront vaincus (sayag°labûna) dans quelques années. À Dieu appartient le Sort dans le passé comme dans le futur. Alors les Croyants se réjouiront du secours de Dieu”.)

    Does make a lot more sense I must say than the traditional reading...

    Well Gallez says that Theophanos the confessor (800AD), confirms this battle and the victory of the Byzantines (Not Mo+co). But Theophanos´ translation is hard to find, I guess I just need to believe Gallez?

    http://www.lemessieetsonprophete.com/annexes/mou_ta.htm#_edn1
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #41 - September 20, 2016, 01:11 PM

    Hi Yeez,
    I´m trying to make a list of events of which we have historical sources. And my first event is

    the battle of Mouta, 629 AD

    Apparently this battle was won by the Byzantines, and might be referenced to in Quran Romains (30,2-5).

    I wonder why you started Islam/Islamic war from the year 629 dear  mundi??

     You went all the way to the end of the life of alleged Prophet of Islam.  In that  usual classical Islam Muhammad died in the year 632 AD.  Anyways first let me put those 5 verses of allah/god   here

    Quote
    030.001  : Alif Lam Mim.

    030.002  : The Romans are vanquished,

    030.003 : In a near land, and they, after being vanquished, shall overcome,

    030.004 : Within a few years. Allah's is the command before and after; and on that day the believers shall rejoice,

    030.005: With the help of Allah; He helps whom He pleases; and He is the Mighty, the Merciful;

    Let me throw that  that 5th verse out of the discussion as it is a general statement and is nothing to do with war/s in Islam ..

    Now putting those four verses  together and reading it as real story, what I see here is one real statement from which people write all sort of silly stories
    Quote
    Alif Lam Mim.
    The Romans are vanquished, In a near land,
    and they, after being vanquished, shall overcome, Within a few years.
     Allah's is the command before and after; and on that day the believers shall rejoice,

    So filtering irrelevant nonsense,the statement from Quran   on that war with Roman's is this

    "The Romans are vanquished, In a near land,
    and they, after being vanquished, shall overcome, Within a few years."

    Now irrespective who fought who and who own the war,  the question I pose to the  the foolish readers of Quran is

    Why any one need  to consider such simple  statement is from Allah/God? the supreme super force that is controlling this universe?  I say only fools consider such silly words of a story (REAL OR UNREAL) as word of Allah/God..  

    Now once I stand with what I said above, rest of your post..  who  won the war., why and how  becomes irrelevant..

    People in jungles, people in towns,  Monkeys in Jungles and animals in Jungles fight wars fight/fought wars for  all of sorts stupid reasons. And some fellow write stories about such fights. ...  Question is.,  why we in 21st century need to consider such silly stories as word of Allah/God??

    LET ME MOCK THE FOOLS MOVE ON..  , Any way the stories of human history need to be carefully analyzed , hence  that Battle of Mu'tah is an important event in early Islam so let me add some links on that story

    Quote

    with best wishes
    yeezevee

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #42 - September 20, 2016, 01:38 PM

    Hello Yeez,

    You see these posts in a broader way: sense and non-sense of religion.
    I see it as an historical puzzle trying to find out what really happened.

    Why did I start with 629 AD?  Because of the other events of your list I don´t think there is any confirmation of it ever happening.

    I see the Quran as an historic literary document. Q14 shows at least part of it is very early (beginning 7 C?), and disregarding its contents completely is throwing away an historical source.

    Now Gallez says that 30, 2-5 was a text written to encourage the Arabs after 629 when they just LOST their battle in Mouta. He finds proof with Theophanos. According to him the Quranic rasm is read wrongly (changing active into passive, same rasm, different meaning), making the following verses much more logical (.. believers will rejoice in a few years when its their turn to win). In the traditional reading these verses just dont make sense.

    I think it´s a very interesting path to explore. But only of course if one is interested in the historical puzzle of the exactness of the events.
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #43 - September 20, 2016, 02:06 PM

    mundi glad  to read your response .  , and I agree with most of what you said here  
    Hello Yeez,  ..

      And once we agree that QURAN IS NOT WORD OF ALLAH/GOD OR OR DIVINELY INSPIRED MANUAL ., then we can discuss and  i take awy some of the words I said in that post  so let me cross them out
    Quote
    I wonder why you started Islam/Islamic war from the year 629 dear  mundi??  You went all the way to the end of the life of alleged Prophet of Islam.  In that  usual classical Islam Muhammad died in the year 632 AD.  

    Now once I stand with what I said above, rest of your post..  who  won the war., why and how  becomes irrelevant..  ...


    So now I do consider your post/responses are indeed relevant as  human history and question  here are.,   what sorts of historical FACTS   can we get from Quran and how accurate does it tell us about   history of Islam ..etc...

    So please continue to explore  on that Battle of Mu'tah ..  I will get back with my ideas of Islamic history on that ..

    With best regards
    yeezevee


    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #44 - September 20, 2016, 02:13 PM

    OK Yeez,

    Seems we were on a different wave length... of course I don´t think Quran is the word of God, didn´t know that was still an issue on this forum  Smiley.

    I´m into this for the fun of solving the historical puzzle. That´s all.
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #45 - October 03, 2016, 05:35 AM

    OK Yeez,

    Seems we were on a different wave length... of course I don´t think Quran is the word of God, didn´t know that was still an issue on this forum  Smiley.

    I´m into this for the fun of solving the historical puzzle. That´s all.

    Well mundi ., I write posts for readers of the forum not to the active members of the forum.  Cheesy

    If every reader of the forum agrees that the Quran is NOT  word of Allah/God   or inspired by Allah/god  or a message from Allah/god., then there is no reason to write in to the forum.  And    and we all will  be focusing on different problems

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #46 - October 24, 2016, 06:22 PM

    Hello Yeez,

    You seem to have a mission here, nice. But as I said,  for me it´s about the historical puzzle.

    And I must say I´m a bit disappointed on the response I got on the battle of Mouta post. Especially on Gallez´ rereading of the Quran I would have hoped to get some reaction on it of more knowledgeable people having an opinion on sense or non-sense of this. Still hoping... so I´m reposting:

    Quote
    the battle of Mouta, 629 AD

    Apparently this battle was won by the Byzantines, and might be referenced to in Quran Romains (30,2-5). But Gallez suggests that the reading of these verses is wrong (no vowels in rasm...). The verses just don´t make sense in the classical reading.

    The reading should be:
    The romans won (g°alabat) in the nearest land. They will be defeated (sayag°labûna) in a few years. Then the believers will rejoice.

    (In French:“Les Romains ont vaincu (g°alabat) au plus proche de la Terre. Eux, après leur victoire (g°alibi-him), seront vaincus (sayag°labûna) dans quelques années. À Dieu appartient le Sort dans le passé comme dans le futur. Alors les Croyants se réjouiront du secours de Dieu”.)

    Does make a lot more sense I must say than the traditional reading...

    Well Gallez says that Theophanos the confessor (800AD), confirms this battle and the victory of the Byzantines (Not Mo+co). But Theophanos´ translation is hard to find, I guess I just need to believe Gallez?

    http://www.lemessieetsonprophete.com/annexes/mou_ta.htm#_edn1

    [/i]
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #47 - October 25, 2016, 10:40 AM

    Hello Yeez,

    You seem to have a mission here, nice..

    Hello mundi ., No.. no I have no mission in this folder ., it is just airing information on "Timeline of Islam" that has been written by Intellectual Muslim as well as Non-Muslim academicians.  
     
    Quote
    ,,But as I said,  for me it´s about the historical puzzle And I must say I´m a bit disappointed on the response I got on the battle of Mouta post. Especially on Gallez´ rereading of the Quran I would have hoped to get some reaction on it of more knowledgeable people having an opinion on sense or non-sense of this. Still hoping... so I´m reposting:  

      I am  sorry to disappoint you and I am glad you are re-posting it.,  I have  disappointed many folks((..100s probably list run in to 1000s .... lol.....)) in this forum as well outside of this forum  

     I know I not only disappointed on this post of  your's "on battle of Muta"  but I also disappointed you in these following posts of your's  Cheesy
    Quote

    Anyways with this post of your's  you actually gave me a new idea  to explore  on   "Origins of Islam and Its early History "  ].   when I say early   Islam.,  I am talking about  " Islam  from the day   alleged Prophet of Islam was born   to the Islam with-in  100 years  after the death of  Alleged Prophet of Islam"

    So  let us explore that  subject  bit more detail on these early battles of Islam during alleged Prophet of Islam was alive  along with that  "battle of Muta". Indeed such  exploration of that subject will hit "BELOW THE BELT OF ISLAM"

     ..  
    mundi .. do you know what is below the belt of Islam? .,


    Anyways  let me post this timeline of Islam  here   and then  I will post my thoughts on Battle of Muta ..  That  subject of "Battle of Muta coupled  to Quran verse" needs  lot more scrutiny  than just superficial timelines ...
    Quote
    ISLAM AND EUROPE TIMELINE (355-1291 A.D.)

    355: After removing a Roman temple from the site (possibly the Temple of Aphrodite built by Hadrian), Constantine I has the Church of the Holy Sepulcher constructed in Jerusalem. Built around the excavated hill of the Crucifixion, legend has it that Constantine's mother Helena discovered the True Cross here.
    Quote
    570: Muhammad was born in Mecca.

    590 - 604: Pope Gregory the Great (c. 540 - 604) begans his liturgical reforms and changes in church administration.

    594: Muhammad became the manager of the business of Lady Khadija.

    595: Muhammad married Hadrat Khadija.

    610: Muhammad had a religious experience on Mount Hira that changed his life.

    613: Persians capture Damascus and Antioch.

    614: Persians sack Jerusalem. damaging the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in the process.

    615: Muhammad invited the Hashimites to adopt Islam.

    615: Persecution of Muslims by the Quaraish in Mecca intensified and a group of Muslims leave for Abyssinia (modern Ethiopia).

    621: Abu Jahl became leader of a mounting opposition to Muslims in Mecca and organized a boycott of merchants in Mohammad's clan, the Hashim.

    622: About 75 converts from Medina took the two Pledges of al-Aqaba, professing to Islam and to protect Muhammad from all danger.

    622: The Hijra: emigration of Muhammad and his followers to Yathrib (now: Madinat al-Nabi, "the city of the Prophet," or simply, al-Madina). Foundation of the first Islamic community; social and economic reforms. Starting point of the Islamic calendar.

    624: Muhammad broke with his Jewish supporters because they refused to recognize him as a prophet and adopt Isalm. He chose now to emphasize the Arabness of the new religion and has his followers face Mecca when praying instead of Jerusalem. In the end, all the Jews were either banished or executed.

    March 15, 624: At the Battle of Abdr, Muhammad and his followers defeated an army from Mecca. Muhammad's chief rival in Mecca, Abu Jahl, was executed.

    627: Meccan leader Abu Sufyan (c. 567 - c. 655) laid siege to Muhammad's forces in Medina during the battle of the Trench. Even with 10,000 men he was unsuccessful for the 15 days he was there. Muhammad suspected the Banu Quraiza Jews of helping the Meccans and had all the men killed.

    627: A confederation was created between Muhammad's followers in Mecca and the eight Arab clains in Medina with the Constitution of Medina.

    628: Muhammad led about 1,600 men on a pilgrimage to Mecca where their passage was blocked by citizens of Mecca. Fortunately they agreed to negotiate with Muhammad and then later agreed to the Pact of Hudaibiya, ending hostilities and allowing for Muslim pilgrimages.

    629: After a group of Muslims was attacked, Muhammad dissolved the Pact of Hudaibiya and prepared to attack Mecca.  Expedition to Muta (Romans).

    630: An army of 30,000 Muslims marched on Mecca which surrendered with little resistance. Muhammad took control of the city and made it the spiritual center of Islam.

    632: Death of Muhammad. His father-in-law, Abu-Bakr, and Umar devised a system to allow Islam to sustain religious and political stability. Accepting the name of caliph ("deputy of the Prophet"), Abu-Bakr begins a military exhibition to enforce the caliph's authority over Arabian followers of Muhammad. Abu-Bakr then moved northward, defeating Byzantine and Persian forces. Abu-Bakr died two years later and Umar succeeded him as the second caliph, launching a new campaign against the neighboring empires.


    632-34: Widespread tribal rebellion on the death of Muhammad. Abu Bakr, the first caliph (khalifa) reimposes the authority of the Islamic government throughout Arabia and sends Arab armies of conquest against Mesopotamia and Syria.

    633: Muslims conquer Syria and Iraq.

    634: Victory against the Byzantines in Palestine (Ajnadayn).

    634-644: Umar (c. 591-644) reigns as the second caliph. The Muslims subjugate Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia and Persia. Garrisons established in the conquered lands, and the Muslim rulers begin to take control of financial organisation.

    635: Muslims begin the conquest of Persia and Syria.

    635: Arab Muslims capture the city of Damascus from the Byzantines.

    August 20, 636: Battle of Yarmuk (also: Yarmuq, Hieromyax): Following the Muslim capture of Damascus and Edessa, Byzantine Emperor Heraclius organizes a large army which manages to take back control of those cities. However, Byzantine commander, Baänes is soundly defeated by Muslim forces under Khalid ibn Walid in a battle in the valley of the Yarmuk River outside Damascus. This leaves all of Syria open to Arab domination.

    636 (?): The Arabs under Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas defeat a Sasanian army in the battle of Qadisiyya (near Hira), gaining Iraq west of the Tigris. A second victory follows at Jalula, near Ctesiphon.

    637: The Arabs occupy the Persian capital of Ctesiphon. By 651, the entire Persian realm would come under the rule of Islam and continued its westward expansion.

    637: Syria is conquered by Muslim forces.

    637: Jerusalem falls to invading Muslim forces.

    638: Caliph Umar I enters Jerusalem.

    639-42: Conquest of Egypt (642 taking of Alexandria) by 'Amr ibn al-'As. Muslims capture the sea port of Caesarea in Palestine, marking end of the Byzantine presence in Syria.

    641: Islam spreads into Egypt. The Catholic Archbishop invites Muslims to help free Egypt from Roman oppressors.

    641: Under the leadership of Abd-al-Rahman, Muslims conquer southern areas of Azerbaijan, Daghestan, Georgia, and Armenia.

    641/2: Under the leadership of Amr ibn al-As, Muslims conquer the Byzantine city of Alexandria in Egypt. Amr forbids the looting of the city and proclaims freedom of worship for all. According to some accounts, he also has what was left of the Great Library burned the following year. Al-As creates the first Muslim city in Egypt, al-Fustat, and builds there the first mosque in Egypt.

    644: Muslim leader Umar dies and is succeeded by Caliph Uthman, a member of the Umayyad family that had rejected Muhammad's prophesies. Rallies arise to support Ali, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, as caliph. Uthman launches invasions to the west into North Africa.

    649: Muawiya I, a member of the Umayyad family, leads a raid against Cyprus, sacking the capital Salamis-Constantia after a short siege and pillaging the rest of the island.

    652: Sicily is attacked by Muslims coming out of Tunisia (named Ifriqiya by the Muslims, a name later given to the entire continent of Africa).

    653: Muawiya I leads a raid against Rhodes, taking the remaining pieces of the Colossus of Rhodes (one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world) and shipping it back to Syria to be sold as scrap metal.

    654: Muawiya I conquers Cyprus and stations a large garrison there. The island would remain in Muslim hands until 0966.

    655: Battle of the Masts: In one of the few Muslim naval victories in the entire history of Islam, Muslim forces under the command of Uthman bin Affan defeat Byzantine forces under Emperor Constant II. The battle takes place off the coast of Lycia and is an important stage in the decline of Byzantine power.

    661-680: Mu'awiya, founder of the Umayyad dynasty, becomes the caliph and moves the capital from Mecca to Damascus. The Umayyad family rules Islam until 750. Ali's followers form a religious party called Shiites and insist that only descendants of Ali deserve the title of caliph or deserve any authority over Muslims. The opposing party, the Sunnites, insist on the customs of the historical evolution of the caliphate rather than a hereditary descent of spiritual authority.

    662: Egypt fell to the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates until 868 A.D. A year prior, the Fertile Crescent and Persia yielded to the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates, whose rule lasted until 1258 and 820, respectively.

    667: The Arabs occupy Chalcedon, threatening Constantinope. Sicily is attacked by Muslims sailing from Tunisia.

    668: First Siege of Constantinople: This attack lasts off and on for seven years, with the Muslim forces generally spending the winters on the island of Cyzicus, a few miles south of Constantinople, and only sailing against the city during the spring and summer months. The Greeks are able to fend off repeated attacks with a weapon desperately feared by the Arabs: Greek Fire. It burned through ships, shields, and flesh and it could not be put out once it started. Muawiyah has to send emissaries to Byzantine Emperor Constans to beg him to let the survivors return home unimpeded, a request that is granted in exchange for a yearly tribute of 3,000 pieces of gold, fifty slaves, and fifty Arab horses.

    669: The Muslim conquest reaches to Morocco in North Africa. The region would be open to the rule of the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates until 800.

    672: Muslims under Mauwiya I capture the island of Rhodes.

    672: Beginning of the 'seven year' Arab siege of Constantinople.

    674: Arab conquest reaches the Indus River.

    August 23, 676: Birth of Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer) in Herstal, Wallonia, Belgium, as the illegitimate son of Pippin II. Serving as Mayor of the Palace of the kingdom of the Franks, Charles would lead a force of Christians that turn back a Muslim raiding party near Poitiers (or Tours) which, according to many historians, would effectively halt the advance of Islam against Christianity in the West.

    677: Muslims send a large fleet against Constantinople in an effort to finally break the city, but they are defeated so badly through the Byzantine use of Greek Fire that they are forced to pay an indemnity to the Emperor.

    680: Birth of Leo III the Isaurian, Byzantine Emperor, along the Turkish-Syrian border in the Syrian province of Commagene. Leo's tactical skills would be responsible for turning back the second Arab Muslim siege of Constantinople in 0717, shortly after he is elected emperor.

    688: Emperor Justinian II and Caliph al-Malik sign a peace treaty making Cyprus neutral territory. For the next 300 years, Cyprus is ruled jointly by both the Byzantines and the Arabs despite the continuing warfare between them elsewhere.

    691: Birth of Hisham, 10th caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. It is under Hisham that Muslim forces would make their deepest incursions into Western Europe before being stopped by Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 0732.

    698: Muslims capture Carthage in North Africa.

    700: Muslims from Pamntelleria raid the island of Sicily.

    711: With the further conquest of Egypt, Spain and North Africa, Islam included all of the Persian empire and most of the old Roman world under Islamic rule. Muslims began the conquest of Sindh in Afghanistan.

    April 711: Tariq ibn Malik, a Berber officer, crosses the strait separating Africa and Europe with a group of Muslims and enters Spain (al-Andalus, as the Muslims called it, a word is etymologically linked to "Vandals"). The first stop in the Muslim conquest of Spain is at the foot of a mountain that comes to be called Jabel Tarik, the Mountain of Tarik. Today it is known as Gibraltar. At one time the Berbers had been Christians but they recently converted in large numbers to Islam after the Arab conquest of North Africa.

    July 19, 711: Battle of Guadalete: Tariq ibn Ziyad kills King Rodrigo (or Roderic), Visigoth ruler of Spain, at the Guadalete River in the south of the Iberian peninsula. Tariq ibn Ziyad had landed at Gibraltar with 7,000 Muslims at the invitation of heirs of the late Visigoth King Witica (Witiza) who wanted to get rid of Rodrigo (this group includes Oppas, the bishop of Toledo and primate of all Spain, who happens to be the brother of the late king Witica). Ziyad, however, refuses to turn control of the region back over to the heirs of Witica. Almost the entire Iberian peninsula would come under Islamic control by 718.

    712: Muslim governor of Northern Africa Musa ibn Nusayr follows Tariq ibn Ziyad with an army of 18,000 as reinforcements for the conquest of Andalusia. Musa's father had been a Catholic Yemenite studying to be a priest in Iraq when he was captured in Iraq by Khalid, the "Sword of Islam," and forced to choose between conversion or death. This invasion of Iraq had been one of the last military orders given by Muhammed before his death.

    714: Birth of Pippin III (Pippin the Short) in Jupille (Belgium). Son of Charles Martel and father of Charlemagne, in 0759 Pippin would capture Narbonne, the last Muslim stronghold in France, and thereby drive Islam out of France.

    715: By this year just about all of Spain is in Muslim hands. The Muslim conquest of Spain only took around three years but the Christian reconquest would require around 460 years (it might have gone faster had the various Christian kingdoms not been at each other' throats much of the time). Musa's son, Abd el-Aziz, is left in charge and makes his capital the city of Seville, where he married Egilona, widow of king Rodrigo. Caliph Suleiman, a paranoid ruler, would have el-Aziz assassinated and sends Musa into exile in his native Yemen village to live out his days as a beggar.

    716: Lisbon is captured by Muslims.

    717: Cordova (Qurtuba) becomes the capital of Muslim holdings in Andalusia (Spain).

    717: Leo the Isaurian, born along the Turkish-Syrian border in the Syrian province of Commagene, revolts against the usurper Theodosius III and assumes the throne of the Byzantine Empire.

    August 15, 717: Second Siege of Constantinople: Taking advantage of the civil unrest in the Byzantine Empire, Caliph Sulieman sends 120,000 Muslims under the command of his brother, Moslemah, to launch the second siege of Constantinople. Another force of around 100,000 Muslims with 1,800 galleys soon arrives from Syria and Egypt to assist. Most of these reinforcements are quickly destroyed with Greek Fire. Eventually the Muslims outside Constantinople begin to starve and, in the winter, they also begin to freeze to death. Even the Bulgarians, usually hostile to the Byzantines, send a force to destroy Muslim reinforcements marching from Adrianopolis.

    August 15, 718: Muslims abandon their second siege of Constantinople. Their failure here leads to the weakening of the Umayyad government, in part because of the heavy losses. It is estimated that of the 200,000 soldiers who besieged Constantinople, only around 30,000 made it home. Although the Byzantine Empire also sustains heavily casualties and loses most its territory south of the Taurus Mountains, by holding the line here they prevent a disorganized and militarily inferior Europe from having to confront a Muslim invasion along the shortest possible route. Instead, the Arabic invasion of Europe must proceed along the longer path across northern Africa and into Spain, a route which prevents quick reinforcement and ultimately proves ineffective.

    719: Muslims attack Septimania in southern France (so named because it was the base of operations for Rome's Seventh Legion) and become established in the region known as Languedoc, made famous several hundred years later as the center of the Cathar heresy.

    July 09, 721: A Muslim army under the command of Al-Semah and that had crossed the Pyrenees is defeated by the Franks near Toulouse. Al-Semah is killed and his remaining forces, which had previously conquered Narbonne, are forced back across the Pyrenees into Spain.

    722: Battle of Covadonga: Pelayo, (690-737) Visigoth noble who had been elected the first King of Asturias (718-0737), defeats a Muslim army at Alcama near Covadonga. This is generally regarded as the first real Christian victory over the Muslims in the Reconquista.

    724: Hisham becomes the 10th caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. It is under Hisham that Muslim forces make their deepest incursions into Western Europe before being stopped by Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 0732.

    724: Under the command of Ambissa, Emir of Andalusia, Muslim forces raid southern France and capture the cities of Carcassone and Nimes. Primary targets in these and other raids are churches and monasteries where the Muslims take away holy objects and enslave or kill all the clerics.

    725: Muslim forces occupied Nimes, France.

    730: Muslim forces occupy the French cities of Narbonne and Avignon.

    October 10, 732: Battle of Tours: With perhaps 1,500 soldiers, Charles Martel halts a Muslim force of around 40,000 to 60,000 cavalry under Abd el-Rahman Al Ghafiqi from moving farther into Europe. Many regard this battle as being decisive in that it saved Europe from Muslim control. Gibbon wrote: "A victorious line of march had been prolonged above a thousand miles from the rock of Gibraltar to the banks of the Loire; the repetition of an equal space would have carried the Saracens to the confines of Poland and the Highlands of Scotland; the Rhine is not more impassable than the Nile or Euphrates, and the Arabian fleet might have sailed without a naval combat into the mouth of the Thames. Perhaps the interpretation of the Koran would now be taught in the schools of Oxford, and her pulpits might demonstrate to a circumcised people the sanctity and truth of the revelation of Muhammed." Others, though, argue that the battle's importance has been exaggerated. The names of Tours, Poitiers, and Charles Martel do not appear in the Arab histories. They list the battle under the name Balat al-Shuhada, the Highway of Martyrs, and is treated as a minor engagement.

    735: Muslim invaders capture the city of Arles.

    737: Charles Martel sends his brother, Childebrand, to lay siege to Avignon and drive out the Muslim occupiers. Childebrand is successful and, according to records, has all the Muslims in the city killed.

    739: Already having retaken Narbonne, Beziers, Montpellier, and Nimes during the previous couple of years, Childebrand captures Marseille, one of the largest French cities still in Muslim hands.

    June 08, 741: Death of Leo III the Isaurian, Byzantine Emperor. Leo's tactical skills were responsible for turning back the second Arab Muslim siege of Constantinople in 0717, shortly after he was elected emperor.

    October 22, 741: Death of Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer) in at Quierzy (today the Aisne county in the Picardy region of France). As Mayor of the Palace of the kingdom of the Franks, Charles had led a force of Christians that turned back a Muslim raiding party near Poitiers (or Tours) which, according to many historians, effectively halted the advance of Islam against Christianity in the West.

    April 04, 742: Birth of Charlemagne, founder of the Frankish Empire.

    743: Death of Hisham, 10th caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. It was under Hisham that Muslim forces made their deepest incursions into Western Europe before being stopped by Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 0732.

    750: The Arabian Nights, a compilation of stories written under the reign of the Abbasids, became representative of the lifestyle and administration of this Persian influenced government.

    750 - 850: The Four Orthodox Schools of Islamic Law were established.

    750: The Abbasids assume control of the Islamic world (except Spain, which falls under the control of a descendant of the Umayyad family) and moved the capital to Baghdad in Iraq. The Abbasid Caliphate would last until 1258.

    September 755: Abd al-Rahman of the Umayyad dynasty flees to Spain to escape the Abbasids and would be responsible for creating the "Golden Caliphate" in Spain.

    756: The Emirate of Cordova is established by Umayyad refugee Abd al-Rahman I in order to revive the defeated Umayyad caliphate which had been destroyed in 0750 by the Abbasids. Cordova would become independent of the Abbasid Empire and represents the first major political division within Islam. The political and geographic isolation of the Cordova Caliphate would make it easier for Christians to decisively conquer it despite their failures elsewhere, although this would not be completed until 1492.

    759: Arabs lose the city of Narbonne, France, their furthest and last conquest into Frankish territory. In capturing this city Pippin III (Pippin the Short) ends the Muslim incursions in France.

    768: Pepin's son, Carolus Magnus (Charlemagne), succeeded his father and became one of the most important European rulers of medieval history.

    September 24, 768: Death of Pippin III (Pippin the Short) at Saint Denis. Son of Charles Martel and father of Charlemagne, in 759 Pippin captured Narbonne, the last Muslim stronghold in France, and thereby drove Islam out of France.

    778: Charlemagne, King of the Franks and soon-to-be Holy Roman Emperor, is invited by a group of Arab leaders in northeastern Spain to attack Abd al-Rahman I, ruler of the Emirate of Cordova. Charlemagne obliges them, but is forced to retreat after only getting as far as Saragossa. It is during his march back through the Pyrenees that his forces are set upon by Basques. Among the many who die is the war leader Roland from Breton, killed in Roncevalles, whose memory has been preserved in the "Chanson de Roland," an important epic poem during the Middle Ages.

    785: The Great Mosque in Cordoba, in Muslim controlled Spain, was built.

    787: Danes invade England for the first time.

    788: Death of Abd al-Rahman I, founder of the Umayyad Emirate of Cordova. His successor is Hisham I.

    792: Hisham I, emir of Cordova, calls for a Jihad against the infidels in Andalusia and France. Tens of thousands from as far away as Syria heed his call and cross the Pyrennes to subjugate France. Cities like Narbonne are destroyed, but the invasion is ultimately hated at Carcassone.

    796: Death of Hisham I, emir of Cordova. His successor is his son, al-Hakam, who would keep up the jihad against the Christians but would also be forced to contend with rebellion at home.

    799: The Basques rise in revolt and kill the local Muslim governor of Pamplona.

    800: North Africa falls under the rule of the Aghlabi dynasty of Tunis, which would last until 909.

    800 - 1200: Jews experience a "golden age" of creativity and toleration in Spain under Moorish (Muslim) rule.

    800: Ambassadors of Caliph Harunu r-Rashid give keys to the Holy Sepulcher to the Frankish king, thus acknowledging some Frankish control over the interests of Christians in Jerusalem.

    801: Vikings begin selling slaves to Muslims.

    806: Hien Tsung becomes the Emperor of China. During his reign a shortage of copper leads to the introduction of paper money.

    813: Muslims attack the Civi Vecchia near Rome.

    April 04, 814: Death of Charlemagne, founder of the Frankish Empire.

    816: With the support of Moors, the Basques revolt against the Franks in Glascony.

    822: Death of Al-Hakam, emir of Cordova. He is succeeded by Abd al-Rahman II.

    June 827: Sicily is invaded by Muslims who, this time, are looking to take control of the island rather than simply taking away booty. They are initially aided by Euphemius, a Byzantine naval commander who is rebelling against the Emperor. Conquest of the island would require 75 years of hard fighting.

    831: Muslim invaders capture the Sicilian city of Palermo and make it their capital.

    835: Birth of Ahmad Ibn Tultun, founder of the Tulunid Dynasty in Egypt. Originally sent there as a deputy by the Abbasid Caliphate, Tultun will establish himself as an independent power in the region, extending his control as far north as Syria. It is under Tultun that the Great Mosque of Cairo is built.

    838: Muslim raiders sack Marseille.

    841: Muslim forces capture Bari, principle Byzantine base in southeastern Italy.

    846: Muslim raiders sail a fleet of ships from Africa up the Tiber river and attack outlying areas around Ostia and Rome. Some manage to enter Rome and damage the churches of St. Peter and St. Paul. Not until Pope Leo IV promises a yearly tribute of 25,000 silver coins do the raiders leave. The Leonine Wall is built in order to fend off further attacks such as this.

    849: Battle of Ostia: Aghlabid monarch Muhammad sends a fleet of ships from Sardinia to attack Rome. As the fleet prepares to land troops, the combination of a large storm and an alliance of Christian forces were able to destroy the Muslims ships.

    850: The Acropolis of Zimbabwe was built in Rhodesia.

    850: Perfectus, a Christian priest in Muslim Cordova, is executed after he refuses to retract numerous insults he made about the Prophet Muhammed. Numerous other priests, monks, and laity would follow as Christians became caught up in a zest for martyrdom.

    851: Abd al-Rahman II has eleven young Christians executed in the city of Cordova after they deliberately seek out martyrdom by insulting the Prophet Muhammed.

    852: Death of Abd al-Rahman II, emir of Cordova.

    858: Muslim raiders attack Constantinople.

    859: Muslim invaders capture the Sicilian city of Castrogiovanni (Enna), slaughtering several thousand inhabitants.

    863: Under Cyril (0826 - 0869) and Methodius (c. 0815 - 0885) the conversion of Moravia begins. The two brothers were sent by the patriarch of Constantinople to Moravia, where the ruler, Rostilav, decreed in 863 that any preaching done had to be in the language of the people. As a result, Cyril and Methodius developed the first usable alphabet for the Slavic tongue - thus, the Cyrillic alphabet.

    866: Emperor Louis II travels from Germany to southern Italy to battle the Muslim raiders causing trouble there.

    868: The Sattarid dynasty, whose rule would continue until 930, extended Muslim control throughout most of Persia. In Egypt, the Abbasid and Umayyad caliphates ended and the Egyptian-based Tulunid dynasty took over (lasting until 904).

    869: Arabs capture the island of Malta.

    870: After a month-long siege, the Sicilian city of Syracuse is captured by Muslim invaders.

    871: King Alfred the Great of England created a system of government and education which allowed for the unification of smaller Anglo-Saxon states in the ninth and tenth centuries.

    874: Iceland is colonized by Vikings from Norway.

    876: Muslims pillage Campagna in Italy.

    879: The Seljuk Empire unites Mesopotamia and a large portion of Persia.

    880: Under Emperor Basil, the Byzantines recapture lands occupied by Arabs in Italy.

    884: Death of Ahmad Ibn Tultun, founder of the Tulunid Dynasty in Egypt. Originally sent there as a deputy by the Abbasid Caliphate, Tultun established himself as an independent power in the region, extending his control as far north as Syria. It is under Tultun that the Great Mosque of Cairo is built.

    884: Muslims invading Italy burn the monastery of Monte Cassino to the ground.

    898: Birth of Abd al-Rahman III, generally regarded as the greatest of the Umayyad caliphs in Andalusia. Under his rule, Cordova would become one of the most powerful centers of Islamic learning and power.

    900: The Fatimids of Egypt conquered north Africa and included the territory as an extension of Egypt until 972.

    902: The Muslim conquest of Sicily is completed when the last Christian stronghold, the city of Taorminia, is captured. Muslim rule of Sicily would last for 264 years.

    905: The Tulunid Dynasty in Egypt is destroyed by an Abbasid army sent to reestablish control over the region of Egypt and Syria.

    909: Sicily came under the control of the Fatimids' rule of North Africa and Egypt until 1071. From 878 until 909, their rule of Sicily was uncertain.

    909: The Fatimid Dynasty assumes control of Egypt. Claiming descent from Fatima, daughter of the Prophet Muhammed, and Ali bin Abi Talib, the Fatimids would rule Egypt until being overthrown by the Auyybids and Saladin in 1171.

    911: Muslims control all the passes in the Alps between France and Italy, cutting off passage between the two countries.

    912: Abd al-Rahman III becomes the Umayyad Caliph in Andalusia.

    916: A combined force of Greek and German emperors and Italian city-states defeat Muslim invaders at Garigliano, putting Muslim raids in Italy to an end.

    920: Muslim forces cross the Pyrenees, enter Gascony, and reach as far as the gates of Toulouse.

    929: Abd al-Rahman III transforms the Emirate of Cordova into and independent caliphate no longer under even theoretical control from Baghdad.

    935 - 969: The rule of Egypt was under the Ikhidid dynasty.

    936: The Althing, the oldest body of representative government in Europe, is established in Iceland by the Vikings.

    939: Madrid is recaptured from Muslim forces.

    940: Hugh, count of Provence, gives his protection to Moors in St. Tropez if they agree to keep the Alpine passes closed to his rival, Berenger.

    953: Emperor Otto I sends representatives to Cordova to ask Caliph Abd al-Rahman III to call off some Muslim raiders who had set themselves up in Alpine passes and are attacking merchant caravans going in and out of Italy.

    961: Death of Abd al-Rahman III, generally regarded as the greatest of the Umayyad caliphs in Andalusia. Under his rule, Cordova became one of the most powerful centers of Islamic learning and power. He is succeeded by Abdallah, a caliph who would kill many of his rivals (even family members) and has captured Christians decapitated if they refuse to convert to Islam.

    961: Under the command of general Nicephorus Phokas, the Byzantines recapture Crete from Muslim rebels who had earlier fled Cordova.

    965: Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus Phokas reconquers Cyprus from the Muslims.

    965: Grenoble is recaptured from the Muslims.

    969: The Fatimid dynasty (Shi'ite) takes Egypt from the Ikshidids and assumes the title of caliphate in Egypt until 1171.

    969: Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas reconquers Antioch (modern Antakya, capital of the province Hatay) from the Arabs.

    972: The Fatimids of Egypt conquer north Africa.

    972: The Muslims in the Sisteron district of France surrender to Christian forces and their leader asks to be baptized.

    981: Ramiro III, king of Leon, is defeated by Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir (Almanzor) at Rueda and is forced to begin paying tribute to the Caliph of Cordova.

    985: Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir sacks Barcelona

    994: The monastery of Monte Cassino is destroyed a second time by Arabs.

    July 03, 997: Under the leadership of Almanzor, Muslim forces march out of the city of Cordova and head north to capture Christian lands.

    August 11, 997: Muslim forces under Almanzor arrive at the city of Compostela. The city had been evacuated and Almanzor burns it to the ground.

    998: Venice conquers the Adriatic port of Zara.

    c. 1000: Chinese perfect the production and use of gunpowder.

    1000: The Seljuk Turkish Empire is founded by an Oghuz Turkish bey (chieftain) named Seljuk. Originally from the steppe country around the Caspian Sea, the Seljuks are the ancestors of the Western Turks, present-day inhabitants of Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan.

    August 08, 1002: Death of Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir, ruler of Al-Andalus, on the way back from raiding the Rioja region.

    1004: Arab raiders sack the Italian city of Pisa.

    1007: Birth of Isaac I Comnenus, Byzantine emperor. Founder of the dynasty of the Comneni, Isaac's government reforms may have helped the Byzantine Empire last longer.

    1009: Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, founder of the Druze sect and sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, orders the Holy Sepulcher and all Christian buildings in Jerusalem be destroyed. In Europe a rumor develops that a "Prince of Babylon" had ordered the destruction of the Holy Sepulcher at the instigation of the Jews. Attacks on Jewish communities in cities like Rouen, Orelans, and Mainz ensue and this rumor helps lay the basis for massacres of Jewish communities by Crusaders marching to the Holy Land.

    1009: Sulaimann, grandson of Abd al-Rahman III, returns over 200 captured fortresses to the Castilians in return for massive shipments of food for his army.

    1012: Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, founder of the Druze sect and sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, orders the destruction of all Christian and Jewish houses of worship in his lands.

    1012: Berber forces capture Cordova and order that half the population be executed.

    1013: Jews are expelled from the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordova, then ruled by Sulaimann.

    1015: Arab Muslim forces conquer Sardinia.

    1016: The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is partially destroyed by earthquakes.

    1020: Merchants from Amalfi and Salerno are granted permission by the Egyptian Caliph to build a hospice in Jerusalem. Out of this would eventually grow The Order of Knights of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem (also known as: Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and most commonly as Knights Hospitaller).

    1021: Caliph al-Hakim proclaimed himself to be divine and founded the Druze sect.

    1022: Several Cathar heretics are discovered in Toulouse and put to death.

    1023: Muslims expel the Berber rulers from Cordova and install Abd er-Rahman V as caliph.

    1025: The power of the Byzantine Empire begins to decline.

    1026: Richard II of Normandy leads a group of several hundred armed men on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in the belief that the Day of Judgment had arrived. Turkish control of the region hampers their goals, however.

    1027: The Frankish protectorate over Christian interests in Jerusalem is replaced by a Byzantine protectorate. Byzantine leaders begin the reconstruction of the Holy Sepulcher.

    1029: Alp Arslan, "The Lion Hero," is born. Arslan is the son of Togrul Beg, conqueror of Baghdad who made himself ruler of the Caliphate, and great-grandson of Seljuk, founder of the Seljuk Turkish empire.

    1031: The Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba falls.

    1031: The emir of Aleppo has the Krak des Chevaliers contructed.

    1033: Castile is retaken from the Arabs.

    1035: The Byzantines make a landing in Sicily, but don't try to recapture the island from the Muslims.

    1038: The Seljuk Turks become established in Persia.

    1042: The rise of the Seljuk Turks begins.

    1045 - 1099: Life of Ruy Diaz de Vivar, known as El Cid (Arabic for "lord"), national hero of Spain. El Cid would become famous for his efforts to drive the Moors out of Spain.

    May 18, 1048: Persian poet Umar Khayyam is born. His poem The Rubaiyat became popular in the West because of its use by Victorian Edward Fitzgerald.

    1050 - 1200: The first agricultural revolution of Medieval Europe begins in 1050 with a shift to the northern lands for cultivation, a period of improved climate from 700 to 1200 in western Europe, and the widespread use and perfection of new farming devices. Technological innovations include the use of the heavy plow, the three-field system of crop rotation, the use of mills for processing cloth, brewing beer, crushing pulp for paper manufacture, and the widespread use of iron and horses. With an increase in agricultural advancements, Western towns and trade grow exponentially and Western Europe returns to a money economy.

    1050: Duke Bohemond I (Bohemond Of Taranto, French Bohémond De Tarente), prince of Otranto (1089­1111) is born. One of the leaders of the First Crusade, Bohemond would be largely responsible for the capture of Antioch and he secures the title Prince of Antioch (1098 - 1101, 1103 - 04).

    1050: Byzantine emperor Constantine IX Monomachos restores the complex of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem.

    1054: A famine in Egypt forces al Mustansir, 8th Fatimid caliph, to seek food and other commercial assistance from Italy and the Byzantine Empire.

    July 16, 1054: Great Schism: The Western Christian Church, in an effort to further enhance its power, had tried to impose Latin rites on Greek churches in southern Italy in 1052; as a consequence, Latin churches in Constantinople were closed. In the end, this leads to the excommunication of Michael Cerularius, patriarch of Constantinople (who in turn excommunicates Pope Leo IX). Although generally regarded as a minor event at the time, today it is treated as the final event that sealed the Great Schism between Eastern and Western Christianity.

    1055: Seljuk Turks capture Baghdad.

    1056: The Almoravid (al-Murabitun) Dynasty begins its rise to power. Taking the name "those who line up in defense of the faith," this is a group of fanatical Berber Muslims who would rule North Africa and Spain until 1147.

    1061: Roger Guiscard lands at Sicily with a large Norman force and captures the city of Masara. The Norman reconquest of Sicily would require another 30 years.

    1063: Alp Arslan succeeds his father, Togrul Beg, as ruler of the Baghdad Caliphate and the Seljuk Turks.

    1064-1091: The Normans recapture Sicily from the Muslims.

    1064: The Seljuk Turks conquer Christian Armenia.

    September 29, 1066: William the Conqueror invades England and claims the English throne at the Battle of Hastings. Because William is both the King of England and the Duke of Normandy, The Norman Conquest fuses French and English cultures. The language of England evolves into Middle English with an English syntax and grammar and a heavily French vocabulary.

    1067: Romanus IV Diogenes becomes the Byzantine Emperor.

    1068: Alp Arslan invades the Byzantine Empire and is repulsed by Romanus IV Diogenes over the course of three campaigns. Not until 1070, though, would the Turks be driven back across the Euphrates river.

    1070: Seljuk Turks capture Jerusalem from the Fatimids. Seljuk rule is not quite as tolerant as that of the Fatimids and Christian pilgrims begin returning to Europe with tales of persecution and oppression.

    1070: Brother Gerard, a leader of the Benedictine monks and nuns who run the hospices in Jerusalem. beings to organize The Order of Knights of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem (also known as: Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and most commonly as Knights Hospitaller) as a more military force for the active protection of Christian pilgrims.

    1071: Normans conquer the last Byzantine holdings in Italy.

    1071-1085: Seljuk Turks conquer most of Syria and Palestine.

    August 19, 1071: Battle of Manzikert: Alp Arslan leads an army of Seljuk Turks against the Byzantine Empire near Lake Van. Numbering perhaps as many as 100,000 men, the Turks take the fortresses of Akhlat and Manzikert before Byzantine Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes can respond. Although Diogenes is able to recapture Akhlat, the siege of Manzikert fails when a Turkish relief force arrives and Andronicus Ducas, an enemy of Romanus Diogenes, refuses to obey orders to fight. Diogenes himself is captured and released, but he would be murdered after his return to Constantinople. Partly because of the defeat at Manzikert and partly due to the civil wars following the murder of Digoenes, Asia Minor would be left open to Turkish invasion.

    1072: Palermo falls to the Norman adventurers Roger I and Robert Guiscard. Guiscard allows to the inhabitants the right to practice their religion and a certain autonomy.

    December 15, 1072: Malik Shah I, son of Alp Arslan, succeeds his father as Seljuk Sultan.

    1073: Seljuk Turks conquer Ankara.

    July 1074: El Cid marries Jimena, niece of Alfonso IV of Castile and daughter of the Count of Oviedo.

    1078: Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea. It would change hands three more times, finally coming under control of the Turks again in 1086.

    1079: Battle of Cabra: El Cid led his troops to a rout of Emir Abd Allah of Granada.

    1080: Order of the Hospital of St. John is founded in Italy. This special order of knights was dedicated to guarding a pilgrim hospital, or hostel, in Jerusalem.

    1080: An Armenian state is founded in Cilicia, a district on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (Turkey), north of Cyprus, by refugees feeling the Seljuk invasion of their Armenian homeland. A Christian kingdom located in the midst of hostile Muslim states and lacking good relations with the Byzantine Empire, "Armenia Minor" would provide important assistance to Crusaders from Europe.

    1081 - 1118: Alexius I Comnenus is Byzantine emperor.

    1081: El Cid, now a mercenary because he had been exiled by Alfonso IV of Castile, enters the service of the Moorish king of the northeast Spanish city of Zaragosa, al-Mu'tamin, and would remain there for his successor, al-Mu'tamin II.

    1082: Ibn Tumart, founder of the Amohad Dynasty, is born in the Atlas mountains.

    1084: Seljuk Turks conquer Antioch, a strategically important city.

    October 25, 1085: The Moors are expelled from Toledo, Spain, by Alfonso VI.

    October 23, 1086: Battle of Zallaca (Sagrajas): Spanish forces under Alfonso VI of Castile are defeated by the Moors and their allies, the Almorivids (Berbers from Morocco and Algeria, led by Yusef I ibn Tashufin), thus preserving Muslim rule in al-Andalus. The slaughter of Spaniards was great and Yusef refused to abide by his agreement to leave Andalusia in the hands of the Moors. His intention was actually to make Andalusia an African colony ruled by the Almorivids in Morocco.

    1087: After his crushing defeat at Zallaqa, Alfonso VI swallows his pride and recalls El Cid from exile.

    September 13, 1087: Birth of John II Comnenus, Byzantine emperor.

    1088: Patzinak Turks begin forming settlements between the Danube and the Balkans.

    March 12, 1088: Urban II is elected pope. An active supporter of the Gregorian reforms, Urban would become responsible for launching the First Crusade.

    1089: Byzantine forces conquer the island of Crete.

    1090: Yusuf Ibn Tashfin, King of the Almoravids, captures Granada.

    1091: The last Arabic fortress in Sicily falls to the Normans.

    1091: Cordova (Qurtuba) is captured by the Almoravids.

    1092: After the death of Seljuk Sultan (al-sultan , "the power") Malik Shah I, the capital of the Seljuks is moved from Iconjium to Smyrna and the empire itself dissolves into several smaller states.

    May 1094: El Cid captures Valencia from the Moors, carving out his own kingdom along the Mediterranean that is only nominally subservient to Alfonso VI of Castile. Valencia would be both Christian and Muslim, with adherents of both religions serving in his army.

    August 1094: The Almoravids from Morocco land near Cuarte and lay siege to Valencia with 50,000 men. El Cid, however, breaks the siege and forces the Amoravids to flee - the first Christian victory against the hard-fighting Africans.

    November 18, 1095: Pope Urban II opens the Council of Clermont where ambassadors from the Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus, asking help against the Muslims, were warmly received.

    Quote
    FIRST CRUSADE (1096-99)

    Spring, 1096: Peasants' (or PeopleÕs) Crusade sets out from Europe. Three armies don't make it past Hungary.

    Spring-Summer 1096: Massacres against German Jews occur on the way to the Holy Land.Ê Crusaders believe that the battle against Christ's enemies ought to begin at home.

    August, 1096: Emperor Alexius of Constantinople shipped the Peasants' Crusade over the Bosporus.

    Late Summer, 1096: First Crusade leaders depart Europe.

    October 1096: Peasants' Crusade annihilated in Anatolia by the Turks.

    Spring, 1097: First Crusade contingents assembling in Constantinople.

    End of April 1097: First Crusade began the march in Anatolia to Nicaea.

    May 14ÐJune 19 1097: Siege of Nicaea.

    July 1, 1097: Battle of Dorylaeum (Eskisehir).

    October 21, 1097 Ð June 3, 1098: Crusader siege of Antioch.

    December 31, 1097: First Battle of Harenc. Turkish prisoners were dragged within sight of the walls of Antioch and beheaded.

    February 9, 1098: Second Battle of Harenc.

    February, 1098: Emperor Alexius' general Tacitius abandons the siege of Antioch.

    Mar 10, 1098: Citizens of Edessa give Baldwin control of the city.

    Jun 1, 1098: Stephen of Blois and a large group of French crusaders flee the siege of Antioch with news of the arrival of Emir Kerboga of Mosul and his army of 75,000.

    Jun 3, 1098: Antioch falls to Bohemond and the remaining crusaders.

    Jun 5-9, 1098: KerbogaÕs army arrives before Antioch, forcing Bohemond to assume the role of the beseiged.

    Jun 14, 1098: Peter Bartholomew discovers the supposed Holy Lance (the weapon which had stabbed Jesus during his crucifixion.)Ê Crusader morale skyrockets.

    Jun 28, 1098: Battle of Orontes. Crusader victory forces Kerboga to lift the siege of Antioch.

    Nov 27-Dec 11, 1098: Crusaders capture M'arrat-an-Numan.

    Jan 13, 1099: Raymond of Toulouse, after disagreeing with Bohemund about the future crusader course of action, leads the majority of crusaders away from Antioch and toward Jerusalem.

    Feb 14, 1099: Raymond begins the disorganized siege of Arqah, near Tripoli.

    Late Mar, 1099: Godfrey and Robert of Flanders join the siege of Arqah.

    April 20, 1099: Peter Bartholomew dies after attempting an ordeal by fire to prove the authenticity of the Hold Lance.

    Mid-May, 1099: Raymond lifts the siege of Argah and pushes to Jerusalem.

    Jun 7, 1099: Crusaders reach the walls of Jerusalem.

    Jun 13, 1099: Crusaders fail to take Jerusalem by storm.

    Jul 15, 1099: In the only fully coordinated operation of the First Crusade, Godfrey's forces succeed in scaling the walls of Jerusalem (near Herod's Gate) through the effective use of a massive siege tower and ladders.ÊÊ Once in the city, the Crusaders massacre the garrison of Fatimid Moslems and a large percentage of the Moslem and Jewish population.Ê Godfrey was elected Guardian of Jerusalem.

    Aug 12, 1099: Battle of Ascalon. According to most accounts (both crusader and Muslim), the Fatimids were caught unprepared and the battle was short. Al-Afdal left behind his camp and its treasures, which were captured by Robert and Tancred. Crusader losses are unknown, but the Egyptians lost about 10-12 000 men. After the battle, almost all of the remaining crusaders returned to their homes in Europe, their vows of pilgrimage having been fulfilled. There were perhaps only a few hundred knights left in Jerusalem by the end of the year, but they were gradually reinforced by new crusaders, inspired by the success of the original crusade. Ascalon itself remained under Fatimid control and was soon re-garrisoned. It became the base of operations for invasions of the Kingdom of Jerusalem every year afterwards, and numerous battles were fought there in the following years, until it was finally captured by the crusaders in 1153.

    1100: Baldwin, count of Edessa, escapes an ambush near Beirut and proclaims himself king of Jerusalem.

    1104: Muslim victory at Harran, which checks the Crusaders' eastward advance.

    1108: Two coalitions made up of Crusaders and Muslims confront one another near Tel Bashir.

    1109: Fall of Tripoli after a 2000-day siege.

    1110: Fall of Beirut and Saida.

    1111: Ibn al-Khashab, the qadi of Aleppo, organizes a riot against the caliph of Baghdad to demand intervention against the Frankish occupation.

    1112: Victorious resistance at Tyre.

    1115: Alliance of Muslim and Frankish princes of Syria against an army dispatched by the sultan.

    1119: Ilghazi, ruler of Aleppo, crushes the Crusaders at Sarmada.

    1124: The Crusaders take Tyre. They now occupy the entire coast, except for Ascalon.

    1125: Ibn al-Khashab is murdered by the Assassins sect.

    1128: Failure of Crusaders thrust at Damscus. Zangi the ruler of Aleppo.

    1135: Zangi fails to take Damascus.

    1137: Zangi captures Fulk, king of Jerusalem, then releases him.

    1140: Alliance of Damascus and Jerusalem against Zangi.


    Quote
    THE SECOND CRUSADE (1144-1155)

    1144: Zangi takes Edessa, destroying the first of the four Frankish states of the Orient.

    1146: Murder of Zangi. His son Nur al-Din replaces him in Aleppo.

    1148: Debacle at Damascus for a new Frankish expedition led by Conrad, emperor of Germany, and Louis VII, king of France.

    1154: Nur al-Din takes control of Damascus, unifying Muslim Syria under his authority.

    1163-1169: The struggle for Egypt. Shirkuh, lieutenant of Nur al-Din, finally wins. Proclaimed vizier, he dies two months later. He is succeeded by his nephew Saladin (Salahuddin).

    1171: Saladin proclaims the overthrow of the Fatimid caliphate. Sole master of Egypt, he finds himself in conflict with Nur al-Din.

    1174: Death of Nur al-Din. Saladin takes Damascus.

    1183: Saladin takes Aleppo. Egypt and Syria now reunited under his aegis.


    Quote
    THE THIRD CRUSADE (1187-1192)

    1187: The year of Islamic victory.Ê Saladin crushes the Crusaders armies at Hittin, near Lake Tiberias. He reconquers Jerusalem and the greater part of the Crusaders territories. The Crusaders now hold only Tyre, Tripoli and Antioch.

    1190-92: Setback for Saladin at Acre. Intervention of Richard the Lionheart, king of England, enables the Crusaders to recover several cities from the sultan, but not Jerusalem.

    1193: Saladin dies in Damascus at the age of 55. After several years of civil war, his empire is reunited under the authority of his brother al-Adil.


    Quote
    THE FOURTH AND FIFTH CRUSADES (1194-1201)

    1204: The Crusaders take Constantinople. Sack of the city.

    THE SIXTH CRUSADE (1216-1218)

    1218-21: Invasion of Egypt by the Crusaders. They take Damietta and head for Cairo, but the sultan al-Kamil, son of al-Adil, finally repels them.

    THE SEVENTH CRUSADE (1227-1229)

    1229: Al-Kamil delivers Jerusalem to the emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, arousing a storm of indignation in the Arab world.

    1244: The Crusaders lose Jerusalem for the last time.


    Quote
    THE EIGHTH CRUSADE (1245-1247)

    1248-50: Invasion of Egypt by Louis IX, King of France, who is defeated and captured. Fall of the Ayyubid dynasty; replaced by the rule of the Mamluks.

    1258: The Mongol chief Hulegu, grandson of Genghis Khan, sacks Baghdad, massacring the population and killing the last Abbasid caliph.

    1260: The Mongol army, after occupying first Aleppo and then damascus, is defeated at the battle of Ayn Jalut in palestine. Baybars at the head of the Mamluk sultanate.

    1268: Baybars takes Antioch, which had been allied with the Mongols.

    1270: Louis IX dies near Tunis in the course of a failed invasion.

    1289: The mamluk sultan Qalawun takes Tripoli.

    1291: The sultan Khalil, son of Qalawun, takes Acre, putting an end to two centuries of Crusader presence in the Orient

    .


    well I need to edit  a bit here and there but that is what it was..

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #48 - October 25, 2016, 01:01 PM

    Yeez and hopefully also others,

    Well the name Muta seems to have been dropped out of your timeline for 629. Is that already my influence? hahah!

    What I really like with Gallez´ approach is he goes to the rasm and just doesnt accept the conventional reading especially when that reading is "non-sensical". There is no scientific  reason to accept that the reading known today is how it was read in 7C. Yet most scholars seem to accept it as fixed, because otherwise it becomes too difficult? Or what other reason is there? Just can´t understand from a scientific approach.
    If not questioning the reading, all what follows is "occupational therapy" to me and has little value except of filling the page. It´s like deciphering code with a rigged enigma machine...
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #49 - October 25, 2016, 01:28 PM

    Yeez and hopefully also others,

    Well the name Muta seems to have been dropped out of your timeline for 629. Is that already my influence? hahah!

    ..
    No..no..no It is stil there in the post I have written  long ago in this folder
    Quote

    The time line you see above need to be edited as I collected w.r.t  ISLAM AND EUROPE TIMELINE (355-1291 A.D.) with reference to  origins of FIRST CRUSADE  ... anyway let me edit that..
    Quote
    What I really like with Gallez´ approach is he goes to the rasm and just doesnt accept the conventional reading especially when that reading is "non-sensical". There is no scientific  reason to accept that the reading known today is how it was read in 7C.

     
    I agree with that,   unfortunately analysis of Quran with reference to  that old Arabic writing script  is a recent phenomenon  even in the Academic circles.
    Quote
    Yet most scholars seem to accept it as fixed, because otherwise it becomes too difficult? Or what other reason is there?
    Quote
    Just can´t understand from a scientific approach.   If not questioning the reading, all what follows is "occupational therapy" to me and has little value except of filling the page. It´s like deciphering code with a rigged enigma machine...


    well you gave reason mundi   ....    that is not  "occupational therapy"  but it is "occupational Hazard"    that often comes when you question Quran.  The other problem with Gallez's work  is.. ....It is in French....    and he seem to have very little connection  with Jewish Faculty members from West that work with Middle Eastern religions ..  Any way we should continue to explore Quran and early Islamic history w.r.t.    rasm  .,  but mundi you didn't answer my question . may be you missed it  because of that too much text in one post ., so let me re-post it  Cheesy
    Hello mundi

    ................Indeed such  exploration of that subject will hit "BELOW THE BELT OF ISLAM"

    mundi .. do you know what is below the belt of Islam? .,


    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #50 - October 25, 2016, 07:22 PM

    yeez,Yeez, indeed I missed that question. Your long answers seem to exceed my span of attention, sorry about that, my fault wacko.

    I don´t know the answer, what is hitting below the belt in Islam? I am very curious now...

  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #51 - May 27, 2019, 03:33 PM

    what?  what is happening here ?..   mundi asked a question some three years ago....  damn...  no one is answering him and no one knows  what the question is., and that include  me..

     I AM IN SWAMP WITH FULL OF PAPERS/BOOKS...   let me throw everything  in trash and start with clean table...  So mundi said this on October 25, 2016, 07:22 PM  .. and today is may 28th 2019.... Cheesy Cheesy   
    Quote from: mundi link=topic=n#msg862463 date=1477423324
    yeez,Yeez, indeed I missed that question.  Your long answers seem to exceed my span of attention, sorry about that, my fault wacko.

    I don´t know the answer, what is hitting below the belt in Islam? I am very curious now...


    I don't know what  you are talking mundi..    I don't know   who is hitting who below the belt dear mundi.,   And i don't care   if some one gets hit below the belt by Islam or some one hits    below the belt of  Islam..   but my interests on Islam and on faiths in general  are shifting fast....  and now i am interested on  Rashidun Caliphate . so let me read this.. 
    Quote
    Rashidun Caliphate  by Elizabeth Urban published: 11 January 2016 

    Abstract

    The Rashidun Caliphate (632–661) is the period in Islamic history immediately following the death of the Prophet Muhammad. While Muhammad led a small religious polity in Medina under his charismatic prophetic leadership, he did not create anything that might be called an empire.   The situation changed under the four caliphs of the Rashidun period – Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali – who oversaw the rapid expansion of the Islamic polity throughout the Near East. They elaborated important military, legal, and economic structures and developed a nascent imperial apparatus that helped ensure the success of the Islamic state.   The Rashidun Caliphate is often considered a religio‐political golden age, but it also witnessed many fierce debates about the nature of authority, the role of the caliph, and the relationship between religion and politics. In fact, the Rashidun Caliphate ended with a calamitous civil war that permanently divided the young Muslim community, revealing the incredible difficulty of simultaneously ruling a huge empire and maintaining religious unity...


    with best wishes
    yeezevee

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #52 - May 27, 2019, 03:58 PM

    List of Rulers of the Islamic World

    Quote
    Caliphs and Wazirs   


    Abu Bakr.............................................. ........................ ....A.H. 11–13 / A.D. 632–634
    'Umar ibn al-Khattab....................................................A.H. 13–23 / A.D. 634–644
    'Uthman ibn 'Affan........................................................A.H. 23–35 / A.D. 644–656
    'Ali ibn Abi-Talib.............................................................A.H. 35–40 / A.D. 656–661

    Umayyad Dynasty
    A.H. 41–132 / A.D. 661–750
    .   

    Mu'awiya I.........................................................................A.H. 41–60 / A.D. 661–680
    Yazid I.................................................................................A.H. 60–64 / A.D. 680–683
    Mu'awiya II.......................................................................A.H. 64 / A.D. 683–684
    Marwan I...........................................................................A.H. 64–65 / A.D. 684–685
    'Abd al-Malik...................................................................A.H. 65–86 / A.D. 685–705
    al-Walid I...........................................................................A.H. 86–96 / A.D. 705–715
    Sulayman..........................................................................A.H. 96–99 / A.D. 715–717
    'Umar II.............................................................................A.H. 99–101 / A.D. 717–720
    Yazid II..............................................................................A.H. 101–105 / A.D. 720–724
    Hisham.............................................................................A.H. 105–125 / A.D. 724–743
    al-Walid II.........................................................................A.H. 125–126 / A.D. 743–744
    Yazid III............................................................................A.H. 126 / A.D. 744
    Ibrahim...........................................................................A.H. 126 / A.D. 744
    Marwan II.....................................................................A.H. 127–132 / A.D. 744–750


    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #53 - May 27, 2019, 04:57 PM

    Quote
    'Abbasid Dynasty (Iraq)
    A.H. 132–656 / A.D. 750–1258


    al-Saffah............................................................A.H. 132–136 / A.D. 749–754
    al-Mansur ........................................................A.H. 136–158 / A.D. 754–775
    al-Mahdi............................................................A.H. 158–169 / A.D. 775–785
    al-Hadi.................................................................A.H. 169–170 / A.D. 785–786
    Harun al-Rashid...............................................A.H. 170–193 / A.D. 786–809
    al-Amin...............................................................A.H. 193–198 / A.D. 809–813
    al-Ma'mun.........................................................A.H. 198–218 / A.D. 813–833
    al-Mu'tasim.......................................................A.H. 218–227 / A.D. 833–842
    al-Wathiq............................................................A.H. 227–232 / A.D. 842–847
    al-Mutawakkil....................................................A.H. 232–247 / A.D. 847–861
    al-Muntasir.........................................................A.H. 247–248 / A.D. 861–862
    al-Musta'in..........................................................A.H. 248–252 / A.D. 862–866
    al-Mu'tazz...........................................................A.H. 252–255 / A.D. 866–869
    al-Muhtadi...........................................................A.H. 255–256 / A.D. 869–870
    al-Mu'tamid.........................................................A.H. 256–279 / A.D. 870–892
    al-Mu'tadid..........................................................A.H. 279–289 / A.D. 892–902
    al-Muktafi.............................................................A.H. 289–295 / A.D. 902–908
    al-Muqtadir........................................................A.H. 295–320 / A.D. 908–932
    al-Qahir................................................................A.H. 320–322 / A.D. 932–934
    al-Radi..................................................................A.H. 322–329 / A.D. 934–940
    al-Muttaqi.............................................................A.H. 329–333 / A.D. 940–944
    al-Mustakfi.............................................................A.H. 333–334 / A.D. 944–946
    al-Muti'...................................................................A.H. 334–363 / A.D. 946–974
    al-Ta'i'.......................................................................A.H. 363–381 / A.D. 974–991
    al-Qadir....................................................................A.H. 381–422 / A.D. 991–1031
    al-Qa'im..................................................................A.H. 422–467 / A.D. 1031–1075
    al-Muqtadi..............................................................A.H. 467–487 / A.D. 1075–1094
    al-Mustazhir...........................................................A.H. 487–512 / A.D. 1094–1118
    al-Mustarshid..........................................................A.H. 512–529 / A.D. 1118–1135
    al-Rashid..................................................................A.H. 529–530 / A.D. 1135–1136
    al-Muqtafi..................................................................A.H. 530–555 / A.D. 1136–1160
    al-Mustanjid.............................................................A.H. 555–566 / A.D. 1160–1170
    al-Mustadi'................................................................A.H. 566–575 / A.D. 1170–1180
    al-Nasir......................................................................A.H. 575–622 / A.D. 1180–1225
    al-Zahir.......................................................................A.H. 622–623 / A.D. 1225–1226
    al-Mustansir...............................................................A.H. 623–640 / A.D. 1226–1242
    al-Musta'sim..............................................................A.H. 640–656 / A.D. 1242–1258


    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #54 - May 27, 2019, 07:18 PM

    Quote
    Quote
    Barmakid Dynasty
    ca. A.H. 165–221 / A.D. 781–835

    Barmak Khalid..............................................................A.H. 165 / A.D. 781
    Yahyad............................................................................. A.H. 190 / A.D. 805
    Ja'far................................................................................... A.H. 187 / A.D. 803
    al-Fadl ............................................................................. A.H. 193 / A.D. 808
    Musa.................................................................................A.H. 221 / A.D. 835;

     
    Abbasid Dynasty (Egypt)
    A.H. 659–923 / A.D. 1261–1517 

    al-Mustansir...........................................................................A.H. 659 / A.D. 1261
    al-Hakim I..............................................................................A.H. 660–701 / A.D. 1261–1302
    al-Mustakfi I..........................................................................A.H. 701–740 / A.D. 1302–1340
    al-Wathiq I.............................................................................A.H. 740–741 / A.D. 1340–1341
    al-Hakim II..............................................................................A.H. 741–753 / A.D. 1341–1352
    al-Mu'tadid I...........................................................................A.H. 753–763 / A.D. 1352–1362
    al-Mutawakkil I (1st reign)....................................................A.H. 763–779 / A.D. 1362–1377
    al-Mu'tasim (1st reign)............................................................A.H. 779 / A.D. 1377
    al-Mutawakkil I (2nd reign)....................................................A.H. 779–785 / A.D. 1377–1383
    al-Wathiq II....................................................................................A.H. 785–788 / A.D. 1383–1385
    al-Mu'tasim (2nd reign)..............................................................A.H. 788–791 / A.D. 1385–1389
    al-Mutawakkil I (3rd reign).......................................................A.H. 791–808 / A.D. 1389–1406
    al-Musta'in........................................................................................A.H. 808–816 / A.D. 1406–1414
    al-Mu'tadid II.................................................................................A.H. 816–845 / A.D. 1414–1441
    al-Mustakfi II.....................................................................................A.H. 845–855 / A.D. 1441–1451
    al-Qa'im................................................................................................A .H. 855–859 / A.D. 1451–1455
    al-Mustanjid.......................................................................................A.H. 859–884 / A.D. 1455–1479
    al-Mutawakkil II................................................................................A.H. 884–903 / A.D. 1479–1497
    al-Mustamsik (1st reign)..............................................................A.H. 903–914 / A.D. 1497–1508
    al-Mutawakkil III (1st reign).........................................................A.H. 914–922 / A.D. 1508–1516
    al-Mustamsik (2nd reign)...............................................................A.H. 922–923 / A.D. 1516–1517
    al-Mutawakkil III (3rd reign)............................................................A.H. 923 / A.D. 1517

     

    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #55 - May 28, 2019, 09:31 AM

    Quote
    Selected early Shi'i rulers
    A.H. 35–ca. 264 / A.D. 656–ca. 878

    'Ali............................................................. A.H. 40 / A.D. 661
    Hasan.........................................................A.H. 49 / A.D. 669
    Husaynd.................................................. A.H. 61 / A.D. 680
    'Ali Zayn al-'Abidind........................... A.H. 94 / A.D. 712
    Muhammad al-Baqird........................ A.H. 113 / A.D. 731
    Ja'far al-Sadiqd. ....................................A.H. 148 / A.D. 765
    Musa al-Kazimd................................... A.H. 183 / A.D. 799
    'Ali al-Ridad........................................... A.H. 203 / A.D. 818
    Muhammad al-Jawadd.. A.H................ 220 / A.D. 835
    'Ali al-Hadid. .........................................A.H. 254 / A.D. 868
    Hasan al-'Askarid. ................................A.H. 260 / A.D. 874
    Muhammad al-Mantazard. ............. A.H. 264 / A.D. 878


    Egypt


    Tulunid DynastyA........................................H. 254–292 / A.D. 868–905

    Ahmad ibn Tulun............................................ A.H.254–270 / A.D. 868–884
    Khumarawayh ..................................................A.H.270–282 / A.D. 884–896
    Jaysh....................................................................A.H. 282–283 / A.D. 896
    Harun...................................................................A.H. 283–292 / A.D. 896–905
    Shayban..............................................................A.H. 292 / A.D. 905

    Ilkhshidid Dynasty.......................A.H. 323–358 / A.D. 935–969

    Muhammad ibn Tughj....................................A.H. 323–334 / A.D. 935–946
    Unujur..................................................................A.H. 334–349 / A.D. 946–960
    'Ali......................................................................A.H. 349–355 / A.D. 960–966
    Kafur...................................................................A.H. 355–357 / A.D. 966–968
    Ahmad................................................................A.H. 357–358 / A.D. 968–969

    Fatimid DynastyA.H. 297–567 / A.D. 909–1171

    'Ubaydullah al-Mahdi..............................................A.H. 297–322 / A.D. 909–934
    al-Qa'im.......................................................................A.H. 322–334 / A.D. 934–946
    al-Mansur....................................................................A.H. 334–341 / A.D. 946–953
    al-Mu'izz.......................................................................A.H. 341–365 / A.D. 953–975
    al-'Aziz............................................................................A.H. 365–386 / A.D. 975–996
    al-Hakim...........................................................................A.H. 386–411 / A.D. 996–1021
    al-Zahir...............................................................................A.H. 411–427 / A.D. 1021–1036
    al-Mustansir....................................................................A.H. 427–487 / A.D. 1036–1094
    al-Musta'li.........................................................................A.H. 487–495 / A.D. 1094–1101
    al-Amir..............................................................................A.H. 495–524 / A.D. 1101–1130

    [interregnum].................. A.H. 524–525 / A.D. 1130–1131

    al-Hafiz....................................A.H. 525–544 / A.D. 1131–1149
    al-Zafir.........................................A.H. 544–549 / A.D. 1149–1154
    al-Fa'iz.........................................A.H. 549–555 / A.D. 1154–1160
    al-'Adid..........................................A.H. 555–567 / A.D. 1160–1171


    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
  • Chronological History of Islam
     Reply #56 - May 28, 2019, 01:45 PM

    Quote
    Ayyubid Dynasty (Egypt)
    A.H. 564–650 / A.D. 1169–1252

    Salah al-Din (Saladin)
    A.H. 564–589 / A.D. 1169–1193
    al-'Aziz
    A.H. 589–595 / A.D. 1193–1198
    al-Mansur
    A.H. 595–596 / A.D. 1198–1200
    al-'Adil I
    A.H. 596–615 / A.D. 1200–1218
    al-Kamil
    A.H. 615–635 / A.D. 1218–1238
    al-'Adil II
    A.H. 635–637 / A.D. 1238–1240
    al-Salih Ayyub
    A.H. 637–647 / A.D. 1240–1249
    Turan Shah
    A.H. 647–648 / A.D. 1249–1250
    al-Ashraf II
    A.H. 648–650 / A.D. 1250–1252
    Ayyubid Dynasty (Damascus)
    A.H. 582–658 / A.D. 1186–1260
    al-Afdal
    A.H. 582–92 / A.D. 1186–1196
    al-'Adil I
    A.H. 592–615 / A.D. 1196–1218
    al-Mu'azzam
    A.H. 615–24 / A.D. 1218–1227
    al-Nasir Salah al-Din Da'ud
    A.H. 624–26 / A.D. 1227–1229
    al-Ashraf
    A.H. 626–34 / A.D. 1229–1237
    al-Salih Isma'il (1st reign)
    A.H. 634–35 / A.D. 1237–1238
    al-Kamil
    A.H. 635 / A.D. 1238
    al-'Adil II
    A.H. 635–36 / A.D. 1238–1239
    al-Salih Isma'il Najm al-Din Ayyub (1st reign)
    A.H. 636–37 / A.D. 1239
    al-Salih Isma'il (2nd reign)
    A.H. 637–43 / A.D. 1239–1245
    al-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub (2nd reign)
    A.H. 643–47 / A.D. 1245–1249
    al-Mu'azzam Turan Shah
    A.H. 647–48 / A.D. 1249–1250
    al-Nasir Salah al-Din II
    A.H. 648–58 / A.D. 1250–1260
    Ayyubid Dynasty (Aleppo)
    A.H. 579–658 / A.D. 1183–1260
    al-'Adil I
    A.H. 579–582 / A.D. 1183–1186
    al-Zahir Ghiyath al-Din
    A.H. 582–613 / A.D. 1186–1216
    al-'Aziz Ghiyath al-Din
    A.H. 613–634 / A.D. 1216–1237
    al-Nasir Salah al-Din II
    A.H. 634–658 / A.D. 1237–1260


    Do not let silence become your legacy  
    I renounced my faith to become a kafir, 
    the beloved betrayed me and turned in to  a Muslim
     
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