Matthew Melvin-Koushki - Early Modern Islamicate Empire: New Forms of Religiopolitical Legitimacyhttps://www.academia.edu/19580345/Early_Modern_Islamicate_Empire_New_Forms_of_Religiopolitical_Legitimacy
The imperial ideologies developed in the post-Mongol Persianate world represent both a break with Islamic precedent and a realization of the millenarian universalism inherent in Islam itself. Early modern Muslim dynasts—styling themselves saint-philosopher-kings, millennial sovereigns and divine cosmocrators—combined Chinggisid, Persian and Islamic symbols of religiopolitical legitimacy in their quest for world domination, emblematized by Alexander the Great, Chinggis Khan and Amir Timur. During this profoundly messianic era, sultans and saints competed for sacral power (walaya); securing access to this power became a driving concern of ruling and scholarly elites, whether by way of Sufism, occultism or Alidism, and often eclectic combinations of all three. The present chapter surveys these new strategies of religiopolitical legitimation pursued between the 15th and 17th centuries by the Timurid, Aqquyunlu, Safavid, Uzbek, Mughal and Ottoman Empires, constituent members of the vast Persian cosmopolis stretching from the Balkans and Anatolia in the west to China and India in the east.