LOL no those are about the emergence of civilization and the potential reasonings for the shift from gatherer-hunter societies, since that what you seemed to have asked (about #13).
Here, this may be more along the lines of what you were asking.
Patriarchy was created at a specific time in history out of many complex processes
involving demographic, ecological, cultural, and historical factors which developed
as lifestyles changed and people adapted to new circumstances. These processes
were dialectical processes which means they were mutually interactive, mutually
reinforcing processes at the end of the Neolithic Era and the beginning of
civilization. Some of these new lifestyles and processes, which eventually led to
male dominance, were:
• Men in herder tribes learned to domesticate animals during the Neolithic
era; this meant they realized it took male and female to produce offspring. It
is thought these herder men were the first men to realize their role in
• These herder men were also the first humans to acquire the notion of private
ownership - in this case the notion of private ownership of their own herds.
(Before this time during the Paleolithic and Neolithic eras people had
shared tools, land, and food.)
• Once these men acquired the notion of private ownership they wanted to
pass their herds down to their own blood progeny, and this was when they
insisted women be virgins when they married and refrain from adultery after
• This began the first patriarchal families. Fredrich Engles, who set forth these
ideas in his book written in the 1800’s, The Origin of the Family, Private
Property and the State, called this the "historical defeat of the female sex."
• Life at the end of the Neolithic Era included a phenomenon called by
eminent anthropologist, Claude Levi-Strauss, the "Exchange of Women".
This represented forms of trade where women were a commodity. It took
several forms: 1. Negotiated marriage alliances between tribes or villages
meant the forceful removal of women from their homelands. 2. Women
offered by tribal chiefs to sleep with visiting men as a gesture of hospitality;
3. Women forced to participate in ritual rapes in festivals to insure
• These practices, characterized as the exchange-of-women, meant women
were taught from a young age to consent to these patriarchal practices.
• At this same time in the Neolithic Era, women in the agricultural villages
were needed for their hard work and for their life-giving capabilities. The
more children they could bear the better because people were needed to
cultivate the ever-expanding farmland. Women's reproductive ability was a
village resource and her reproductive capacity became like a commodity or
like a form of property owned by the rulers of the group. Children now
became an economic asset.
• When intertribal warfare during times of economic scarcity resulted in
larger scale war, women were captured during these early wars and
enslaved. Women and children became the first slaves in human history.
Women slaves were forced to become prostitutes, concubines, or domestic
• The Queen and upper class women had many privileges. The Queen served
as Deputy and stand-in for her husband, had personal slaves and attendants,
but even the Queen's sexuality and reproductive capabilities were controlled
by men. Kings and warriors had harems and numerous concubines.
• Royal edicts and legal codes legitimized the patriarchal family. The
patriarchal family was based on the father as the head of the family and he
had economic and legal power over the family. He was obeyed by his wife
and children. Adultery on the part of the wife was punishable by death in
many edicts and codes.
• Legal codes differentiated between respectable and non-respectable women
thus institutionalizing a ranking order for women which has divided
women, prevented women from uniting, and blocking feminist
consciousness. These male written codes caused women to compete rather
• Mother Goddesses, so common during the Paleolithic and Neolithic Eras,
were demoted in the pantheon of gods with the rise of civilization and male
Gods including male creator gods rose to the top of the pantheon of gods.
Example: the Hebrew god Yahweh only communicated with patriarchs of
the tribes including Abraham, Noah, Moses, Cain and Abel, but didn’t
communicate directly with women. The Greek god Zeus gave birth to
Athena showing he was superior to her. Medusa's former image as a
powerful fertility goddess was reworked into making her a monster with
hair of writhing snakes and Pandora, another fertility goddess, became a
demon with a box full of the evils of the world.
• Male historians, scribes, and scholars have created most of the belief
systems, heroes, and explanatory systems in the various civilizations and
women have been largely excluded from this process until fairly recently.
• The majority of women all over the world have been deprived of an
education until fairly recently.
• Women have collaborated in their own subordination and have sometimes
internalized values which have subordinated them.source
summary from book: The creation of patriarchy
There were/are actually no societies (in post-neolithic civilizations wherein the word "society" means an actual organized group settled in a region) that can be considered purely "matriarchal", the way we now call the asymmetrical system of hierarchies called "patriarchy".
There were some societies that early anthropologists, from patriarchal cultures themselves, thought were "matriarchal", but it has actually been re-considered and post 1960s anthropologists consider such societies as just having had complete different internal systems, closer to what we'd call "matri-focal" or "egalitarian" societies. In other words, matriarchal societies had been imagined as just patriarchal societies with men instead of women holding power over the other genders. What evidence actually suggests is that in a system where mothers, grandmothers, sisters and women in general are primary decision-makers, there has been more leisure time for men and for women, and less violence and fewer strict hierarchies (though it would be a good idea not to idealize any society as there are always internal differences).
Western* culture is strongly influenced by the patriarchal cultures that the Abrahamic religions were also a product of. In this culture, even now when we are so secular and will deny any connection with this culture's abrahamic/patriarchal roots, there is a glorification of domination, and a denigration of cooperation. Thus gender roles are created and enacted in service of this dichotomy. "Masculinity" as domination, "Femininity" as cooperation. These are constructed, artificial norms; biology determines a lot less what "manly men" and "girly girls" are expected to act like; most of these "norms" are imposed by culture, and we know this because various cultures impose slightly or greatly different norms on the people who were raised in them.
*By Western culture, I mean the prevailing culture in W. Europe, N. America and the Arab and Muslim-influenced world.
Matriarchy, if seen as just patriarchy with women instead of men exercising power and dominating over those with less power, have never existed.
Celtic law, like other pagan systems of organization and beliefs, were subsumed within Christian law. So yeah you could go on about the role of women or the equality of sexes in various cultures, but almost all of them were subsumed by the more violent patriarchal cultures, in large part due to the violence.